More Pakistanis Migrating to Non-English Speaking Rich Industrialized Nations

Migration data for 2016 released by Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the club of rich industrialized nations of Europe, North America and East Asia, shows that a growing number of Pakistanis are migrating to its non-English Speaking member countries. Traditionally, most Pakistanis migrating to rich industrialized nations have preferred to go to English-Speaking nations. The biggest factor driving such migrations appears to be the growing labor shortages caused by aging populations and declining birth rates in OECD member nations.

Migration to Non-English Speaking OECD Nations:

Among the biggest non-English Speaking OECD destinations in 2016 for Pakistani migrants are Italy (14,735)  , Germany (12,215), Spain (6,461), South Korea (2,724), Japan (1,486), France (1,350) and Sweden (1.211). 

Pakistani Migration to Non-English Speaking OECD Nations in 2016. Source: OECD


Among English Speaking OECD nations, the top destination for Pakistani migrants continues to be the United States (19,313) followed by Canada (11,335), United Kingdom (11,000) and Australia (6,958). 

OECD Migration Report 2018: 

Over 95,000 Pakistanis migrated to and another 50,000 acquired citizenship of the rich industrialized nations of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in 2016, according to International Migration Outlook 2018 released by the Organization.

Nearly 50,000 Pakistani immigrants became citizens of the rich industrialized countries of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in 2016, according to International Migration Outlook 2018 recently published by the Organization.


Source: International Migration Outlook 2018


India topped the list with 130,000 Indians acquiring citizenship of OECD nations in 2016, followed by Mexico (112,000) ranked 2nd, the Philippines (94,000) ranked 3rd, Morocco (94,000) ranked 4th, China (78,000) ranked 5th, Albania (52,000) ranked 6th and Pakistan (50,000) ranked 7th.

In addition, Pakistan was the 18th largest source of immigrants with 95,000 Pakistanis migrating to OECD nations in 2016. India is 4th on this list with 271,000 Indians migrating to OECD countries.

Source: International Migration Outlook 2018


Humanitarian migration of refugees, rather than migration for better economic prospects, dominated OECD inflows during 2015. War-torn Syria was the second largest source with 430,000 migrants in 2015, the report said.

Online Labor Market:

The Internet has enabled online labor markets where freelancers sell their services globally. Pakistan (8.5%) ranks 4th in the world for online labor after India (24%), Bangladesh (16%) and the United States (12%), according to Online Labor Index. This Index is based on data collected from four of the largest online labour platforms, also known as online freelancing or online outsourcing platforms: Fiverr, Freelancer, Guru, and PeoplePerHour. Most of the customer base for online platforms is located in OECD nations.

Online Labor. Source: International Labor Organization

Pew Research Data: 

India is the world's largest exporter of labor with 15.8 million Indians working in other countries. Bangladesh ranks 5th with 7.2 million Bangladeshis working overseas while Pakistan ranks 6th with 5.9 million Pakistanis working overseas, according to Pew Research report released ahead of International Migrants Day observance on Sunday, December 18, 2016.

International Migration: 

Countries of Origin of Migrants to the United States Source: Pew Research




Pew Research reports that nearly 3.5 million Indians lived in the UAE, the world’s second-largest migration corridor in 2015. While most of the migration is from low and middle income countries to high-income countries, the top 20 list of migrants' origins also includes rich countries like the United States (ranked 20), United Kingdom (11), Germany (14), Italy (21) and South Korea (25).

Top 25 Sources of Migrants:

Here is the list of top 20 countries of origin for international migrants:


1. India 15.9 million

2. Mexico 12.3 million

3. Russia 10.6 million

4. China 9.5 million

5. Bangladesh 7.2 million

6. Pakistan 5.9 million

7. Ukraine 5.83 million

8.  Philippines 5.32 million

9.  Syria 5.01 million

10. Afghanistan 4.84 million

11. United Kingdom 4.92 million

12. Poland 4.45 million

13. Kazakstan 4.08 million

14. Germany 4.0 million

15. Indonesia 3.88 million

16. Palestine 3.55 million

17. Romania 3.41 million

18. Egypt 3.27 million

19. Turkey 3.11 million

20. United States 3.02 million

21. Italy 2.9 million

22. Burma (Myanmar) 2.88 million

23. Colombia 2.64 million

24. Vietnam 2.56 million

25. South Korea 2.35 million

Declining Labor Pool in Developed Economies: 

The world population is aging with slowing labor force growth. It is particularly true of the more developed nations with aging populations and declining birth rates.  In an recent report titled "Asian Economic Integration Report", the Asian Development argued that migration within Asia can help deal with regional labor imbalances. It said as follows:

"In Asia and the Pacific, many economies could expand their role as the source or host economy for migrant workers.

Labor supply is still growing in developing economies—such as Cambodia, Indonesia, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Mongolia, Myanmar, India, Pakistan, and the Philippines—and they could export labor across the region. In contrast, developed but aging economies such as Hong Kong, China; the Republic of Korea; Japan; and Singapore are unable to meet labor demand with their dwindling workforce.

Hence, these economies would benefit from immigrant labor. Kang and Magoncia (2016) further discuss the potential for migration to reallocate labor from surplus to deficit economies and offer a glimpse of how the demographic shift will frame Asia’s future population structure, particularly the future working age population. Among the issues explored is the magnitude of labor force surpluses and deficits within different economies in Asia."

Pakistan's Growing Labor Force:

Pakistan has the world’s sixth largest population, sixth largest diaspora and the ninth largest labor force with growing human capital. With rapidly declining fertility and aging populations in the industrialized world, Pakistan's growing talent pool is likely to play a much bigger role to satisfy global demand for workers in the 21st century and contribute to the well-being of Pakistan as well as other parts of the world.



With half the population below 20 years and 60 per cent below 30 years, Pakistan is well-positioned to reap what is often described as "demographic dividend", with its workforce growing at a faster rate than total population. This trend is estimated to accelerate over several decades. Contrary to the oft-repeated talk of doom and gloom, average Pakistanis are now taking education more seriously than ever. Youth literacy is about 70% and growing, and young people are spending more time in schools and colleges to graduate at higher rates than their Indian counterparts in 15+ age group, according to a report on educational achievement by Harvard University researchers Robert Barro and Jong-Wha Lee. Vocational training is also getting increased focus since 2006 under National Vocational Training Commission (NAVTEC) with help from Germany, Japan, South Korea and the Netherlands.



Pakistan's work force is over 60 million strong, according to the Federal Bureau of Statistics. With increasing female participation, the country's labor pool is rising at a rate of 3.5% a year, according to International Labor Organization.

With rising urban middle class, there is substantial and growing demand in Pakistan from students, parents and employers for private quality higher education along with a willingness and capacity to pay relatively high tuition and fees, according to the findings of Austrade, an Australian government agency promoting trade. Private institutions are seeking affiliations with universities abroad to ensure they offer information and training that is of international standards.


Trans-national education (TNE) is a growing market in Pakistan and recent data shows evidence of over 40 such programs running successfully in affiliation with British universities at undergraduate and graduate level, according to The British Council. Overall, the UK takes about 65 per cent of the TNE market in Pakistan.

It is extremely important for Pakistan's public policy makers and the nation's private sector to fully appreciate the expected demographic dividend as a great opportunity. The best way for them to demonstrate it is to push a pro-youth agenda of education, skills developmenthealth and fitness to take full advantage of this tremendous opportunity. Failure to do so would be a missed opportunity that could be extremely costly for Pakistan and the rest of the world.

Growth Forecast 2014-2050. Source: EIU


In the high fertility countries of Africa and Asia family sizes are continuing to decline. And in low fertility countries family sizes will continue to remain below replacement levels. Why? Because the same juggernaut forces are operating: increasing urbanization, smaller and costly housing, expanding higher education and career opportunities for women, high financial costs and time pressures for childrearing and changing attitudes and life styles.

Source: BBC



Countries With Declining Populations:

115 countries, including China (1.55), Hong Kong (1.17),  Taiwan (1.11) and Singapore (0.8) are well below the replacement level of 2.1 TFR.  Their populations will sharply decline in later part of the 21st century.

 United States is currently at 2.01 TFR, slightly below the replacement rate.  "We don't take a stance one way or the other on whether it's good or bad," said Mark Mather, demographer with the Population Reference Bureau. Small year-to-year changes like those experienced by the United States don't make much difference, he noted. But a sharp or sustained drop over a decade or more "will certainly have long-term consequences for society," he told Utah-based Desert News National.

Japan (1.4 TFR) and Russia (1.6 TFR) are experiencing among the sharpest population declines in the world. One manifestation in Japan is the data on diaper sales: Unicharm Corp., a major diaper maker, has seen sales of adult diapers outpace infant diapers since 2013, according to New York Times.

Median Age Map: Africa in teens, Pakistan in 20s, China, South America and US in 30s, Europe, Canada and Japan in 40s.


The Russian population grew from about 100 million in 1950 to almost149 million by the early 1990s. Since then, the Russian population has declined, and official reports put it at around 144 million, according to Yale Global Online.

Reversing Trends:

Countries, most recently China, are finding that it is far more difficult to raise low fertility than it is reduce high fertility. The countries in the European Union are offering a variety of incentives, including birth starter kits to assist new parents in Finland, cheap childcare centers and liberal parental leave in France and a year of paid maternity leave in Germany, according to Desert News. But the fertility rates in these countries remain below replacement levels.

Summary:

Overzealous Pakistani birth control advocates need to understand what countries with sub-replacement fertility rates are now seeing: Low birth rates lead to diminished economic growth. "Fewer kids mean fewer tax-paying workers to support public pension programs. An "older society", noted the late Nobel laureate economist Gary Becker, is "less dynamic, creative and entrepreneurial." Growing labor force n Pakistan can not only contribute to Pakistan's prosperity but also help alleviate the effects of aging populations and declining labor pools in more developed economies. I believe that Pakistan's growing population and young demographics should be seen as a blessing, not a curse.

Related Links:

Haq's Musings

South Asia Investor Review

Pakistan is the 7th Largest Source of Migrants in OECD Nations

Pakistanis Mini-Invasion of China

Inspirational Story of Karachi Rickshaw Driver's Daughters

Pakistan's Expected Demographic Dividend

Pakistan's Growing Human Capital

Upwardly Mobile Pakistan

Pakistan Most Urbanized in South Asia

Hindu Population Growth Rate in Pakistan

Do South Asian Slums Offer Hope?

Comments

Riaz Haq said…
Pakistan's street cricketers bring game to life in Greece

https://www.reuters.com/article/us-greece-pakistan-cricket/pakistans-street-cricketers-bring-game-to-life-in-greece-idUSKCN1TZ0RR

In a barren Athens parking lot, young Pakistanis get in position for a game of cricket. On one end of the dust-covered concrete is a trash can; on the other, a pile of rocks. That is their pitch, and those are its wickets.

In football-loving Greece, cricket is an alien concept. But for its migrants from Pakistan, one of the world’s most cricket-crazy nations, it is a way of life.

On Sundays, a growing community of street cricketers travels across the capital to the unlikeliest locations, from car parks to abandoned industrial grounds, engaging in tape-ball cricket - an informal version of the game invented in Pakistan, played using a tennis ball wrapped in electrical tape.

With the Cricket World Cup under way, they compete in local tape-ball tournaments, and homes and restaurants are abuzz with fans.

“I love cricket. I’m crazy for cricket. I’m 30 years old and I’m playing for 20 years,” said Awais Mughal, a delivery worker who arrived in Greece a decade ago.

Dressed in the green jersey of his Athens team, Mughal and more than a dozen of his countrymen gathered in his apartment on a sweltering Sunday morning to watch Pakistan defeat South Africa over bottles of chilled water and soft drinks.

“In my country, whenever I go, I play all day,” Mughal said. “In Greece we play only on Sundays because we work six days a week.”
Riaz Haq said…
During the first ten months of 2015, a total of 774,795 migrant workers left Pakistan. That number is presumed to have exceeded 800,000 by end of December 2015, constituting yet a new record.

http://www.oit.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---asia/---ro-bangkok/---ilo-kathmandu/documents/publication/wcms_514139.pdf


Over the past decade, there has been a substantial increase in the foreign employment of Paki- stanis. There are three modes for migrating overseas: through overseas employment promoters, through the OEC and for workers to directly obtain employment. The data on workers using an overseas employment promoter and managing overseas migration on their own is collected by the BEOE. The OEC maintains its own records. Based on both sets of records, more than 8.7 million Pakistani workers have gone abroad for employment since the 1970s. Most of them were registered with the BEOE, with only a total of 139,354 Pakistani workers using the services of the OEC over the past five decades. According to the BEOE records, the annual placement of Pakistanis increased from 143,329 in 2005 to 431,842 in 2008. After a decline during the following two years, it reached 458,229 migrant workers in 2011 before jumping to 639,601 workers in 2012 and 753,841 workers in 2014 (figure 1). During the first ten months of 2015, a total of 774,795 migrant workers left Pakistan. That number is presumed to have exceeded 800,000 by end of December 2015, constituting yet a new record.


During the economic boom period (2005–08), there was an increasing trend of overseas migration, from 4 per cent in 2005 to 10.5 per cent in 2008. After 2008, the world economies as well as the economies of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries (popular destinations for Pakistani workers) were hit hard by the global financial cri- sis. There was then a substantial decline in economic growth across the globe, severely affecting overseas migration. As a result, demand for foreign labour declined in GCC countries and, hence, overseas migration from Pakistan declined. The flow of overseas migration increased at an average growth of 8 per cent instead of 10 per cent during that crisis period. The pace picked up after 2011, returning to a growth rate of more than 10 per cent per annum.

Pakistan is administratively demarcated into four provinces and three regions (the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Gilgit-Baltistan and Azad Jammu and Kashmir). There are 148 dis- tricts2 in these provinces and regions. The data on the origin of migrants from Pakistan is not evenly distributed across provinces and regions nor across districts; rather, there appears to be a concentration in some districts. Between 1981 and 2015, as shown in Map 1, more than 4.1 million workers from Punjab Province who registered with the BEOE went abroad for employ- ment, followed by more than 2 million workers from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, 757,053 workers from Sindh Province, 404,698 workers from the Federally Administered Tribal Areas and 94,942 from Balochistan.
Riaz Haq said…
United Nations International Migration Report

https://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/publications/migrationreport/docs/MigrationReport2017_Highlights.pdf


In 2017, India was the largest country of origin of
international migrants (17 million), followed by
Mexico (13 million). Other countries of origin with
large migrant populations include the Russian
Federation (11 million), China (10 million),
Bangladesh (7 million), Syrian Arab Republic (7
million) and Pakistan and Ukraine (6 million each).

Globally, the twenty largest countries or areas of origin account for almost half (49 per
cent) of all international migrants, while one-third (34 per cent) of all international migrants
originates in only ten countries. India is now the country with the largest number of people
living outside the country’s borders (“diaspora”), followed by Mexico, the Russian
Federation and China. In 2017, 16.6 million persons from India were living in another
country compared to 13.0 million for Mexico (figure 7). Other countries with significant
“diaspora” populations are the Russian Federation (10.6 million), China (10.0 million),
13
International Migration Report 2017: Highlights
Bangladesh (7.5 million), Syrian Arab Republic (6.9 million), Pakistan (6.0 million) and
Ukraine (5.9 million). Of the twenty largest countries or areas of origin of international
migrants, eleven were located in Asia, six in Europe, and one each in Africa, Latin America
and the Caribbean, and Northern America.
Riaz Haq said…
There has been a major decline in manpower export to Saudi Arabia where only 100,910 emigrants proceeded for employment in the year 2018 as compared to 2017, a drop of 42,453 emigrants.


https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/482725-massive-decline-in-manpower-export-to-saudi-arabia-uae-observed


According to Economic Survey 2018-19, no doubt Overseas Employment Migration has an important role in respect of employment creation and poverty eradication. International migration creates significant financial and social benefits for migrants, for their families, and for the countries of origin and destination. Pakistan is one of the largest labour exporting countries of the region and since 1971, more than 10.61 million Pakistanis have proceeded abroad for employment.

It unfolds saying that major decline has been observed in manpower export to Saudi Arabia as only 100,910 proceeded for employment in year 2018 as compared to 2017, a drop of 42,453 emigrants.

More importantly, the situation of manpower export to UAE is also not different from the export to Saudi Arabia as manpower export to UAE also decreased in 2018. In recent years, Malaysia emerged as an important destination country for Pakistani workers as in 2018 increase of 38 percent manpower export towards Malaysia was observed as compared to 2017. Due to the present government‘s efforts for enhancing manpower export, an increasing trend has been observed in Qatar, which is a positive sign.

It also tells that the highest number of workers who went abroad was 185,902 from Punjab, followed by Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 88,361. From Northern Areas, the number of registered workers increased from 3,417 in 2017 to 4,185 in 2018.

However, the situation in other provinces is not encouraging which shows that there is a need to understand the changing trends/dynamics of labour importing countries in order to meet the manpower demand in future.

During 2018, there has been a declining trend in all occupational groups except in the highly qualified category. The scope for low skilled workers is declining and competition among expatriates is increasing. The up skilling and certification of workforce is the pressing need of the time to meet the international standards and demand. In this regard, the role of NAVTTC, TEVTAs and Higher Education Commission (HEC) is crucial to produce skilled and qualified workforce. Moreover, efforts are required at government to government (G2G) level to secure employment opportunities for the Pakistani workforce.


---------------------------

Table 12.7: Number of Pakistani Workers Registered Abroad
S. No. Countries 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
1 UAE 350,522 326,986 295,647 275436 208635
2 Bahrain 9,226 9,029 8,226 7,919 5745
3 Malaysia 20,577 20,216 10,625 7,174 9881
4 Oman 39,793 47,788 45,085 42,362 27202
5 Qatar 10,042 12,741 9,706 11,592 20993
6 Saudi Arabia 312,489 522,750 462,598 143,363 100910
7 UK 250 260 346 340 587

http://finance.gov.pk/survey/chapters_19/Economic_Survey_2018_19.pdf
Riaz Haq said…
#Pakistan sent 55,000 #workers to #Qatar under 100,000 quota. 10,000 #Pakistanis preceded to Qatar for various job opportunities in 2016 and 2017. As many as 20,000 manpower was sent to Qatar during in 2018. #Migrants #Labor #Gulf https://www.thenews.com.pk/latest/495630-pakistan-sent-55000-workforce-to-qatar-under-100000-quota

Ministry of Overseas Pakistanis and Human Resource Development has sent as many as 55,000 skilled and semi-skilled workforce to Qatar for prospective job opportunities in construction and other sectors since 2015.

Qatar had announced to hire 100,000 Pakistan’s workforce in 2015, the official sources told APP.

They said around 10,000 Pakistanis preceded to Qatar for various job opportunities in 2016 and 2017. However, the sources said, as many as 20,000 manpower was sent to Qatar during the last year.

"This figure saw hundred per cent surge due to the sincere efforts of Special Assistant to Prime Minister on Overseas Pakistanis on foreign front,” they added.

They said around 8,800 Pakistanis went Qatar during the first five months of this year.

Now, the ministry was in contact with the authorities concerned in Qatar to fulfill the quota by this year end.

Last month, Sayed Zulfikar Bukhari had informed APP that his ministry was eying to double Qatar’s 100,000 quota for Pakistani workers.

Highlighting the government efforts on diplomatic front, he said Qatar has established three visa facilitation centres at Islamabad, Lahore and Karachi, respectively to ensure swift processing of intending emigrants’ visas.

Bukhari said special facilitation centres were set up for the aspirants, who see Qatar as a prospective foreign job destination, to augment Pakistani manpower abroad, in addition to protect their rights abroad.

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