Pakistan's Growing Defense Industry Goes High Tech

U.S. Army Gen. William Westmoreland is reported to have said: "On the battlefield of the future, enemy forces will be located, tracked and targeted almost instantaneously through the use of data links, computer-assisted intelligence and automated fire control. … I am confident the American people expect this country to take full advantage of its technology–to welcome and applaud the developments that will replace wherever possible the man with the machine." It seems that this vision from the 1970s is being realized today. One manifestation of it is the development and deployment of unmanned aerial vehicles by many nations, including Pakistan.

The growing reliance on armed drones (aka predators) by Americans in Afghanistan and Pakistan's FATA region to target militants has been making headlines with increasing casualties. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles or Drones designed and manufactured in Pakistan have also been making news since IDEAS 2008 event in Karachi, Pakistan held in November of last year. Integrated Dynamics, a privately held Pakistani company that drew attention at IDEAS 2008 expo, is a developer and manufacturer of unmanned aerial vehicles.

Integrated Dynamics is a full-service UAV systems provider based in Karachi, Pakistan. The company has been in business since 1997 and designs and integrates UAV systems primarily for the Government of Pakistan, the Pakistan armed forces and export. The company says they are committed to the use of the UAV system as a scientific and defensive tool that can be used to save lives and monitor potentially hostile environments for human personnel. The company also makes drones such as the turbojet-powered Tornado decoy, which can fly up to 200 kilometers, and emit false radar signals to "confuse enemy air defenses into thinking they are attacking aircraft," according to Defense News of Pakistan.

In addition to supplying drones to Pakistani military, the company exports its products to Australia, Spain, South Korea and Libya and the United States. The US homeland security department uses its Border Eagle surveillance drone for border patrol duties. Integrated Dynamics' products cost only a fraction of the cost of comparable products made in the United States and Europe. ID UAV prices start from about $ 20,000 while comparable UAV products made in the West start from about $ 200,000, according to the Karachi-based company. The ID models have operational range of 20 to 1600 kilometers.

Integrated Dynamics began developing the Firefly mini-rocket UAV in late 2004 in response to Pakistani army operational requirements for a high-speed, short-range observation system that could be used in the high-altitude environments of northern Pakistan. A basic system costs around $3,000 and comprises four rockets, a launcher, a carry case, datalink and a PDA-based ground control station.The UAV company is an example of a new generation of private defense companies in Pakistan that have grown with the emerging needs of Pakistani military and export opportunities to both military and civilian sectors abroad.

Arms as Pakistan's Cottage Industry

Pakistan has a long history of arms manufacturing as a cottage industry. The dusty little town of Darra Adam Khel,only a half-hour drive from Peshawar, reminds visitors of America's Wild West. The craftsmen of this town are manufacturers and suppliers of small arms to the tribal residents of the nation's Federally Administered Tribal Areas who carry weapons as part of their ancient culture. The skilled craftsmen of FATA make revolvers, automatic pistols, shotguns and AK-47 rifles. Until five years ago, the list also had items such as anti-personnel mines, sub-machine guns, small cannons and even rocket launchers. Pakistani government has forced the tribesmen to stop making heavy assault weapons to try and prevent the Taliban and Al Qaeda from getting access to such weapons.

Pakistan's arms industry has come a long way from making small arms as a cottage industry in the last few decades. The US and Western arms embargoes imposed on Pakistan at critical moments in its history have proved to be a blessing in disguise. In particular, the problems Pakistan faced in the aftermath of Pressler Amendment in 1992 became an opportunity for the country to rely on indigenous development and production of defense equipment.

Pakistan's Military Industrial Complex

The country now boasts a powerful industrial, technological and research base developing and manufacturing for its armed forces and exporting a wide variety of small and large weapons ranging from modern fighter jets, battle tanks, armored vehicles, frigates and submarines to unmanned aerial vehicles and high tech firearms and personal grenade launchers for urban combat. Some of these items were on display at IDEAS 2008, the 5-day biennial arms show held November last year in Karachi, Pakistan.

Pakistan has become an increasingly important player in the world arms industry, a global industry and business which manufactures and sells weapons and military technology and equipment. Arms production companies, also referred to as Defense Contractors, produce arms mainly for the armed forces of nation states. Products include guns, ammunition, missiles, military aircraft, military vehicles, ships, electronic Systems, and more. The arms industry also conducts significant research and development. Pakistan's major defense manufacturing companies are owned and operated by Pakistan's military. According to Business Monitor, Pakistan's defense industry contains over 20 major public sector units (PSUs) and over 100 private-sector firms. The majority of major weapons systems production and assembly is undertaken by the state-owned PSUs, while the private-sector supplies parts, components, bladed weapons and field equipment. Major PSUs include the Pakistan Ordnance Factory (POF), Heavy Industries Taxila (HIT), Pakistan Aeronautical Complex, Karachi Shipyard and Engineering Works (KSEW) and the Pakistan Machine Tool Factory. Multinational presence in Pakistan is limited, although joint production or engineering support in the development of certain armaments has recently occurred with companies such as DCN International and the Chengdu Aircraft Industry Group.

IDEAS 2000, Pakistan's first major arms show, was organized after former President Musharraf assumed leadership of the country in the wake of the 1999 bloodless coup that toppled the Nawaz Sharif government. At the show, the former president emphasized the need to grow Pakistan's defense industry and private sector involvement in R&D, manufacturing and marketing of arms. Held every two years since the year 2000, the show has become a runaway success. It has helped Pakistan and other friendly nations to show off their wares, find customers, share knowledge, build bilateral partnerships, encourage scientific innovation and learning among young people and made visitors and Pakistani citizens more aware of the role defense industry plays in national defense and economy. Held in November last year, International Defense Exhibition and Seminar 2008 attracted 256 companies including 162 foreign and 94 Pakistani companies. Among the largest foreign pavilions, Turkey had 28 companies and United States had 22. Other major exhibitors came from China, France, Germany, Italy, Russia, South Korea, South Africa, the Ukraine and the United Kingdom. Among other products, Pakistani companies showed off JF-17 fighter plane built by Pakistan Aeronautical Complex in partnership with China's Chengdu Aircraft, Al-Khalid main battle tank, POF eye capable of shooting around corners and launching grenades in urban combat, and a variety of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) designed, developed and built in Pakistan.

World Arms Market

It is estimated that yearly, over 1 trillion dollars are spent on military expenditures worldwide (2% of World GDP). Part of this goes to the procurement of military hardware and services from the military industry. The combined arms sales of the top 100 largest arms producing companies amounted to an estimated $315 billion in 2006. In 2004 over $30 billion were spent in the international arms trade (excluding domestic arms sales). Many industrialized countries have a domestic arms industry to supply their own military forces. Some countries also have a substantial legal or illegal domestic trade in weapons for use by its citizens. The illegal trade in small arms is prevalent in many countries and regions affected by political instability.

Pakistan's Arms Business

In a July 2008 interview with Pakistan's Dawn newspaper, Major General Mohammad Farooq, Director General of the Defense Export Promotion Organization, indicated that collaboration with the United States had increased in manufacturing armored personnel carriers "with transfer of technology". There have been unconfirmed reports that Pakistan is manufacturing Humvees for the US military in Afghanistan. General Farooq also claimed that Pakistan's defense exports have tripled to around $300 million because of the quality of its ammunition, anti-tank guided missiles, rocket launchers and shoulder-fired surface-to-air missiles. He said exports to South Asian, Middle Eastern and African countries had increased significantly. It has been reported that Sri Lanka has purchased cluster bombs, deep penetration bombs and rockets and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) from Pakistan.
General Farooq said optical instruments like night vision devices, laser range-finders and designators, laser threat sensors, artillery armor mortars and munition, mine detectors, anti-tank rifles, missile boats, different types of tear gases, fuses of unarmed vehicles, security equipment and sporting and hunting guns were also being manufactured in Pakistan. "The fuses are being purchased by countries like Italy, France and Spain," he said.

In reply to a question, he said Pakistan's military exports were higher than India's. "Indians started working on Arjun tank but, they are yet to induct it in their army, while Pakistan has built and handed over Al Khalid tank to the army, although it started the program later," he said.

Lately, Pakistan has come under severe criticism by human rights groups for being a leading manufacturer and exporter of land-mines, cluster bombs and depleted uranium munitions.

High-Tech Aerial Warfare

The three main branches of Pakistani military are evaluating UAVs made in Pakistan and the rest of the world for purchase and deployment. Pakistan has been eager to boost its capabilities for high-tech aerial warfare and restructure and reorient its military to respond to the new and emerging challenges of combating insurgents. A number of public and private sector companies have been engaged in research, development and manufacturing of unmanned aerial vehicles as a part of this initiative. The public sector companies include Pakistan Aeronautical Complex, Air Weapons Complex and National Development Complex.

Pakistan made Shahpar UAV 

Here's a brief run-down of the status of Pakistan's three military services as gleaned from Jane's and other publications:

Pakistan Air Force
As part of its effort to go high-tech, Pakistan Air Force (PAF) will formally induct unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) into service for the first time in 2009, the chief of the PAF has told Jane's. In addition to the Bravo+ UAV, which, according to PAF Chief Air Chief Marshal Tanvir Mahmood Ahmed, has been built indigenously by Air Weapons Complex, the PAF will also receive the Falco UAVs produced by Selex Galileo of Italy. The two systems will be used mainly for aerial reconnaissance and information gathering, although the PAF will later also induct UAVs equipped with weapon systems to carry out offensive operations. "This capability we are developing fairly rapidly; we are becoming mature. It is part of our operations now and I look forward to seeing this in real operations by [the] beginning [of] 2009," ACM Ahmed reportedly told Jane's.

Pakistan Army

The Uqaab, Pakistan Army's drone designed and built by Pakistan Aeronautical Complex, is the first step towards the eventual mass production of a Pakistani UAV. Technical details shared by Pakistani officials suggest that the Uqaab can fly at an altitude of about 15,000 ft and is equipped with day- and night-vision equipment. There have been unconfirmed reports that Pakistan has discussed with China the possibility of further developing the Uqaab to carry a weapons payload, according to Jane's.

Pakistan Navy

Pakistan Navy is reportedly interested in deploying vertical takeoff and landing UAVs on its ship. As a part of its plans to purchase and deploy UAVs, the Pakistani navy has completed trials of Austrian Schiebel Camcopter S-100 and Swedish made Cybaero autonomous VTOL UAVs from a Pakistani frigate in the Arabian sea in April 2008.

Pakistan's UAV Industry

Growing interest by Pakistani military and foreign companies and governments has helped spawn several private Pakistani UAV companies specializing in air-frames, launch and propulsion, flight control, tele-command and control systems, signal intelligence, training simulators, etc. Some of the private companies involved in UAV development and manufacturing include Integrated Dynamics, East-West Infinity, Satuma and Global Industrial Defense Solutions. Between the public and private sector UAVs developed in Pakistan, there is a long list of products including Bravo and Uqaab by Air Weapons Complex, Heliquad by East-West Infinity, Nishan Mk1 , Vision MK1 , Vision MK2 , Nishan TJ 1000, Tornado, Border Eagle, Hornet, Hawk, Hawk Mk1, Shadow and Vector by Integrated Dynamics Pakistan, Flamingo, Jasoos and Mukhbar by Satuma Pakistan , Bazz and Ababeel by Pakistan Aeronautical Complex. These products vary in payload type, size and weight, engine types, range, flying altitude, endurance and launch and recovery systems. Growing domestic and international demand and increasing competition among suppliers is expected to produce significant improvements in capabilities and quality of the UAV products offered by Pakistani companies. In addition to Integrated Dynamics described above, here are three more UAV companies in Pakistan:

East-West Infinity:
One of the companies at the forefront of UAV development is East West Infinity (EWI). EWI's latest products are the Heliquad micro tactical UAV and the Whisper Watch signals intelligence (SIGINT) package.
The Heliquad was first displayed in prototype form at the IDEAS2006 defense exhibition. Equipped with a tiny camera, it can relay pictures back to troops or special forces in an urban environment or in the field, giving them a tactical reconnaissance capability. Being exceptionally small and powered by four electric motors, Heliquad is highly stealthy and represents the cutting edge of EWI's electronics miniaturization. SIGINT has become more important with ongoing anti-terrorism operations on the western front and in the tribal areas. Designed for militaries unable to afford high-end, dedicated SIGINT platforms, the company says its Whisper Watch platform is most effective when aerostat-mounted, as the platform is stationary and airborne for longer.

Satuma (Surveillance and Target Unmanned Aircraft), founded in 1989, is small UAV specialist company based near Islamabad, Pakistan. Satuma products include Flamingo, Jasoos and Mukhbar UAVs. Its biggest customer is Pakistan's military.

Global Industrial Defense Solutions:
GIDS, the largest of the private defense sector companies, has a UAV division, which produces a whole range of operational and training UAVs.Its biggest customer in Pakistan's military. The UAVs developed by GIDS have been extensively flight tested by military. GIDS ground control stations have an interactive and user friendly interface, where flight parameters and auto-pilot mission planning, and execution is done in addition to reception of high-enbd crisp quality video transmitted over an encrypted digital link.
Headed by a retired PAF Air Vice Marshall, GIDS has emerged from a combination of 7 Pakistani private defense companies that include AERO (Advanced Engineering Research Organization), IDS (Integrated Defense Systems), MSL (Maritime Systems Pvt Limited), ACES (Advanced Computing and Engineering Solutions), IICS (Institute of Industrial Control Systems), ATCOP (AI-Technique Corporation) and SETS (Scientific Engineering and Technology Solutions). Other than UAVs, its major products include anti-personnnel, anti-armor, incendiary, anti-runway, electronic impact and time-based fuses, electronic warfare equipment, navigation systems, optical fiber and optical fiber cables. Anti-tank Wire Guided Missile System known as "Baktar Shiken" made by IICS, a component of GIDS.

Pakistan's growing defense industry is going high tech to keep up with the challenges of a changing world that requires advanced weapons and new strategies to maintain peace and stability in a hostile neighborhood. At the same time, Pakistan's defense industry is contributing to scientific, technological, industrial and economic development of the nation by training and employing thousands of citizens. The investments made in defense production are a good bargain for the companies, their investors and the taxpayers of Pakistan to help ensure the nation's economic, political and national security against both internal and external threats.

Note: Abbreviated version of this article was first published by Dinar Standard.

Here's a video report about Pakistan's weapons development:

Here's a video clip of UAV Uqaab flight test:

Here's a video clip about Pakistan's arms expo IDEAS 2008:

Related Links:

Jane's Defense Industry Briefing on Pakistan

World Military Spending
India-Pakistan Military Balance

Pakistan's Arms Industry

Pakistan's Space Capabilities

Foreign Origin of India's Agni Missiles
Pakistan Defense Production

Dinar Standard

Chuck Yeager on Pakistan Air Force

Introduction to Defense Economics


Riaz Haq said…
Here's an excerpt from an interesting post by an Indian blogger Vijainder Thakur at

August 22, 2008 - While Indian defense industry has had little success with indigenous design and development of weapons system (Arjun, LCA) its record with license production has been equally dismal (Hawk trainers, Su-30MKI fighters and T-90S tanks).

It is amazing how after years of 'license production' of weapon systems like Gnats, MiG variants, Jaguars, Vijayanta tanks our defense industry has failed to come up with a product of its own that our defense forces are ready to buy.

Russian newspaper Kommersant, reporting on a deal between India and Rosoboronexport for the license production of Smerch multiple launch rocket system mocks Indian capabilities saying:

"India has had little success with military equipment production, and has had problems producing Russian Su-30MKI fighter jets and T-90S tanks, English Hawk training jets and French Scorpene submarines."

Rosoboronexport, is facilitating the manufacture of the Smerch multiple rocket system both in India and China and the news report hints at the radically different approaches adopted by the two countries towards assisted production.

China first developed an unlicensed analog to Smerch called the A-100 in the 90s. However, they were unable to indigenously develop solid-fuel rocket motor matching those of the Smerch system. So their current deal with Rosoboronexport for Smerch focuses only on the transfer of solid propellant rocket motor technology through Perm Powder Mill.

The Indian deal on the other hand simply entails license production in India. My hunch is it entails no transfer of critical technology.

The Russians will come here set up the plant for us and supply the critical manufacturing machinery. Indian labor and technical management will run the plant which will simply assemble the system. Critical components and the solid propellant rocket motor fuel will still come from Perm Powder Mill. However, bureaucrats in New Delhi and the nation as a whole will be happy. The Smerch system will be proudly paraded on Rajpath every republic day as an indigenous weapon system.

A decade or so down the line, Smerch will get outdated and India will negotiate a new deal with Russia for the license production of a new multiple rocket system for the Indian Army.
Riaz Haq said…
Here's a Times of India report on Tejas operaional clearance today:

BANGALORE: After a tortuous journey of 27 years, with over 1,500 flight-tests and almost 3,000% jump in overall developmental costs, the much-touted but long-delayed Tejas Light Combat Aircraft has finally taken the first step towards induction as a supersonic fighter into IAF.

Amid much fanfare and back-slapping, defence minister A K Antony handed over the Tejas initial operational clearance (IOC) certificate to IAF chief Air Chief Marshal P V Naik at a ceremony here on Monday.

The IOC basically means that the largely homegrown fighter is now fully airworthy, in its initial configuration, to be flown by IAF pilots but not all weapon and other systems have been fully integrated into the platform. That will happen only by December 2012 when the single-engine, multi-role fighter gets the final operational clearance (FOC).

"Today is a historic day...A state-of-the-art indigenous combat aircraft will go a long way in enhancing national security,'' said Antony, showering praise on the entire LCA team led by Aeronautical Development Agency, Defence Research and Development Organisation and Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd.

The euphoria was somewhat justified, given that the supersonic fighter has been built from scratch in a country with an extremely poor defence-industrial base and in the face of international sanctions for several years.

But there has to be a reality check, even if it seems harsh. Even Antony admitted that Tejas had reached just "the semi-final stage'' at this point. As was first reported by TOI earlier, the overall developmental cost of the Tejas project, including the naval variant and trainer, has zoomed up to Rs 17,269 crore from the initial Rs 560 crore earmarked for it in 1983. With each Tejas to cost around Rs 200 crore over and above this, India will end up spending well over Rs 25,000 crore on the programme.

Moreover, the real induction of the first 40 Tejas jets will begin only towards end-2013, with the first two squadrons becoming fully operational at the Sulur airbase (Tamil Nadu) by 2015 or so, a full three decades after the LCA project was first sanctioned to replace the ageing MiG-21s.

That's not all. The first test-flight of the Tejas Mark-II version, with more powerful American GE F-414 engines, will be possible only by December 2014, with its production beginning in June 2016. And even then, the Tejas will just be a medium to low-end fighter, not a high-end air dominance one.

ACM Naik, in fact, described Tejas as a "MiG-21 plus-plus'', and made it clear that it was not even a fourth-generation fighter at present but would be in the future, indicating it will primarily be used to plug the gap in numbers.

Consequently, India's frontline combat fighters will the 270 Russian-origin Sukhoi-30MKIs already being inducted for around $12 billion, the 126 new medium multi-role combat aircraft to be acquired in the $10.4 billion MMRCA project and the 250 to 300 fifth-generation fighter aircraft to be built with Russia in the gigantic $35 billion project.

Yes, there is no getting away from the critical fact that India has to be self-reliant in military hardware and software if it wants to emerge as a superpower on the global stage. But the Tejas saga puts serious question marks on the defence indigenisation model being followed.

The fighter, for instance, is still only around 60% indigenous despite being 27 years in the making. It, for example, is powered by American GE engines, with the indigenous Kaveri engine failing to pass muster despite Rs 2,839 crore being spent on it since 1989.
Riaz Haq said…
Here's a story of Pakistan's successful short range missile (Hatf 9 or Nasr) test to counter India's "cold start" threat, as reported by The Hindu:

Pakistan on Tuesday claimed to have successfully conducted the first flight test of the newly developed Short Range Surface-to-Surface Multi Tube Ballistic Missile `Hatf IX’ (NASR). Viewed by some strategic analysts as Pakistan’s answer to India’s Cold Start Doctrine, NASR has a range of 60 km and ``shoot-and-scoot’’ nuclear delivery capability.

Announcing the test, the Inter Services Public Relations said the quick response system of NASR addresses the need to deter evolving threats. Addressing the gathering at the undisclosed site of the test, Director General of the Strategic Plans Division Khalid Ahmed Kidwai said the successful flight marked an important milestone in consolidating Pakistan’s strategic deterrence capability at all levels of the threat spectrum.

Further, Lt. Gen (retd) Kidwai pointed out that in the hierarchy of military operations, the NASR Weapon System provided Pakistan with short range missile capability in addition to the already available medium and long range ballistic missiles and cruise missiles in its inventory.

Welcoming the test, security analyst, Shireen Mazari, said in a statement that now Pakistan has acquired tactical nuclear capability with a low yield that can be used in the battlefield. ``It will act as a deterrent against use of mechanised conventional land forces. This was essential in the wake of India’s adventurist war-fighting doctrine formulations which envisaged the use of rapid deployment of armed brigades and divisions in surprise and rapid attacks.’’

Referring to India’s Cold Start Doctrine, Ms. Mazari added: ``India has always felt that Pakistan had a loophole in terms of lacking short range battlefield nuclear weapons, which it could exploit on the assumption that it made little sense for Pakistan to respond to such conventional attacks with strategic nuclear weapons. With NASR, Pakistan has plugged that loophole. Indian dreams of a limited war against Pakistan through its Cold Start strategy have been laid to rest. This will allow for a reassertion of a stable nuclear deterrence in the region.’’
Riaz Haq said…
Reports by Reuters news agency suggest that US is offering to sell drones to Pakistan:

ISLAMABAD (Reuters) - The United States will provide Pakistan with 85 small "Raven" drone aircraft, a U.S. military official told Reuters, a key step to addressing Islamabad's calls for access to U.S. drone technology.

The official, speaking on Thursday on condition of anonymity, declined to disclose the cost of the non-lethal, short-range surveillance aircraft, which are manufactured by the U.S.-based AeroVironment Inc.

A company spokesman said the Raven is used by U.S. allies including Italy, Spain and Norway and is one of the most widely utilized unmanned aircraft in the world.

The disclosure is another sign of growing U.S. military assistance to Pakistan, a crucial if often tense ally in the U.S. fight against al Qaeda and insurgents attacking U.S. forces in neighboring Afghanistan.
The Raven, according to the company website, has a wingspan of just 1.4 meters (4.5 feet) and a weight of 1.9 kilos (4.2 pounds). It can deliver real-time color or infrared imagery, giving troops on the ground an edge on the battlefield.

A senior U.S. defense official, also speaking on condition of anonymity, said the Raven drone order is separate from U.S. plans to offer Pakistan much larger, longer-range surveillance drones, a proposition put forward by U.S. Defense Secretary Robert Gates during a visit to Pakistan in January 2010.

That offer delighted Islamabad at the time but Pakistani officials say those talks have been held up over complaints about the cost proposed by Washington and a slow timeline for delivery.

The defense official suggested those talks were nearing conclusion.

"We're in final discussions about which one they really want. They think they want the Shadow," the senior defense official said.

Gates had originally offered Pakistan 12 Shadow drones, manufactured by AAI Corporation, a unit of Textron Systems.

They are not the weaponized versions being used by the CIA to track and kill al Qaeda and Taliban insurgents in Pakistan but are used strictly for surveillance and intelligence gathering.
Riaz Haq said…
Here's a NY Times report on US plans to use cyber warfare against Libya and Pakistan:

The Obama administration is revving up the nation’s digital capabilities, while publicly emphasizing only its efforts to defend vital government, military and public infrastructure networks.

“We don’t want to be the ones who break the glass on this new kind of warfare,” said James Andrew Lewis, a senior fellow at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, where he specializes in technology and national security.

That reluctance peaked during planning for the opening salvos of the Libya mission, and it was repeated on a smaller scale several weeks later, when military planners suggested a far narrower computer-network attack to prevent Pakistani radars from spotting helicopters carrying Navy Seal commandos on the raid that killed Osama bin Laden on May 2.

Again, officials decided against it. Instead, specially modified, radar-evading Black Hawk helicopters ferried the strike team, and a still-secret stealthy surveillance drone was deployed.

“These cybercapabilities are still like the Ferrari that you keep in the garage and only take out for the big race and not just for a run around town, unless nothing else can get you there,” said one Obama administration official briefed on the discussions.

The debate about a potential cyberattack against Libya was described by more than a half-dozen officials, who spoke on the condition of anonymity because they were not authorized to discuss the classified planning.

In the days ahead of the American-led airstrikes to take down Libya’s integrated air-defense system, a more serious debate considered the military effectiveness — and potential legal complications — of using cyberattacks to blind Libyan radars and missiles.

“They were seriously considered because they could cripple Libya’s air defense and lower the risk to pilots, but it just didn’t pan out,” said a senior Defense Department official.

After a discussion described as thorough and never vituperative, the cyberwarfare proposals were rejected before they reached the senior political levels of the White House.

Gen. Carter F. Ham, the head of the military’s Africa Command, which led the two-week American air campaign against Libya until NATO assumed full control of the operation on March 31, would not comment on any proposed cyberattacks. In an interview, he said only that “no capability that I ever asked for was denied.”

Senior officials said one of the central reasons a cyberoffensive was rejected for Libya was that it might not have been ready for use in time, given that the rebel city of Benghazi was on the verge of being overrun by government forces.

While popular fiction and films depict cyberattacks as easy to mount — only a few computer keystrokes needed — in reality it takes significant digital snooping to identify potential entry points and susceptible nodes in a linked network of communications systems, radars and missiles like that operated by the Libyan government, and then to write and insert the proper poisonous codes.

“It’s the cyberequivalent of fumbling around in the dark until you find the doorknob,” Mr. Lewis said. “It takes time to find the vulnerabilities. Where is the thing that I can exploit to disrupt the network?”
Riaz Haq said…
Here's a Flightglobal report on electronic countermeasure warfare capabilities of Pakistan's F-16s ordered from ITT:

ITT has received a $49 million contract to supply pod-housed electronic warfare equipment for the Pakistan air force's Lockheed Martin F-16 fighters. The acquisition is being made using the US government's Foreign Military Sales mechanism.

The US manufacturer has described the system involved as being identical to the ALQ-131 advanced integrated defensive electronic warfare system (AIDEWS) already integrated with the F-16 for the US Air Force and other international operators.

ITT said it has delivered 134 systems so far from an order book of 160, spread across six export buyers.

Carried beneath the fuselage of an F-16, the AIDEWS pod will provide protection by detecting incoming radar-guided surface-to-air and air-to-air missiles.
Riaz Haq said…
Here's an Express Tribune story about Pakistan's first tablet computer offered by Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC):

The newest entrant in the market for tablets and eBook readers – dominated by the likes of Apple, Amazon and Samsung – is none other than the Pakistani military.

The Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC) Kamra, whose self-described mission is “to produce and support weapon systems for a high state of operational readiness of the Pakistan Air Force (PAF)”, has started up a new commercial venture with a Chinese company, which an official told The Express Tribune was to “strengthen the national economy”.

The first three products produced by PAC are a computing tablet, a notebook and an eBook reader.

A press release issued at the launch of the project on December 29 notes that “for the joint production of JF-17, PAF had established sufficient facilities which are appropriate for the production of both defence and commercial products.”

The PAC official, who asked not to be named, told The Express Tribune that the joint venture with the Chinese company Innavtek had taken off with the initial offering of three products. “We plan to expand this in the future.”

The venture website,, states that “Innavtek jointly developed two products with Avionics Production Factory which are successfully flying on fleet of our JF-17 aircraft and three more products are under co development phase.”

The official said that while PAC would manufacture the products, marketing was Innavtek’s responsibility.

He said the products were initially being marketed in Rawalpindi, but modalities needed to be finalised so it could expand to other cities including Lahore and Karachi. “We will get in touch with courier companies to see if we can reach a deal to transport them,” he said.

The competitively priced products, he said, have several benefits because they are being manufactured in Kamra. “It comes with a joint one-year warranty of PAC and Innavtek. Because PAC is producing it, it will ensure quality. We will also provide backup support,” the official said. In the first stage of this venture, PAC will manufacture the products locally but there are plans for an exchange of personnel to be trained in China and Pakistan respectively.

PAC’s plan to “strengthen the national economy” via its new commercial venture means it has to capitalise on “current trends”.

Jehan Ara, the president of the Pakistan Software Houses Association (PASHA), said she was unaware of the venture. She was skeptical that customers would buy PAC’s products just because they were manufactured by the Pakistani military. “People with a fixed budget will test products, read reviews and get recommendations from friends and then buy something. They don’t buy just because of a name. They will test it out of curiosity and put up reviews etc.” She also said governments around the world and in Pakistan buy computers from vendors based on pricing and reliability, and should not be forced to buy from a specific vendor.
Riaz Haq said…
The prices for Pakistan's PAC (Pakistan Aeronautical Complex) computers range from Rs. 8,000 for PAC eBook reader tablet, to Rs. 15,000 for PAC PAD 1 tablet and Rs. 23,500 for PAC nBook.

Check out for specs more details.

Here's a link to a video about Pakistan Aeronautical Complex products.
Riaz Haq said…
Here's Hindustan Times story titled "Assembled in India":

The ministry of defence should rename itself the ministry of imports. India earned the undesirable honorific of being the world's largest buyer of foreign arms in the latest 'Trends in International Arms Transfers' report. The ultimate oxymoron in New Delhi today is 'defence self-reliance'. This state of affairs will continue so long as the ministry continues to believe in the State-owned defence sector.

India's imports of defence equipment surged 38% to $12.7 billion from 2007-11, say the authors of the report, the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI). The only better defence growth figures? Number of speeches by defence minister AK Antony declaring self-reliance to be his goal.

At the time the report was released, Antony spoke at the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO). He complained that DRDO had "many deficiencies", that it was "slow" in implementing recommended reforms. A few days earlier he called for change at Hindustan Aeronautics, another stalwart of India's government defence industry whose core competence is assembling imported airplane kits.

SIPRI's report underlines the true trend in India's defence industry. Namely, that the louder the mantra 'self-reliance' is chanted by defence officialdom, the further the goal moves away from India.

It's not just that the Indian defence sector can't build simple trainer airplanes or armoured vehicles. It even struggles to design usable rifles or make good boots. "Indian soldiers", says Commodore Uday Bhaskar of the National Maritime Foundation, "prefer to buy their uniforms from private tailors rather than wear free government issue".

Antony's criticisms should mean that his office at least understands the problem. But the reforms the ministry advocates are, ultimately, about preserving the defence sector's commanding heights for the State-owned firms. And it's this "tweak the status quo" mindset that ensures India's security increasingly depends on how fast it can import.

Rising Indian arms purchases and stiff offset requirements - roughly half the cost of foreign purchases must be outsourced to Indian firms - means billions of dollars' worth of contracts will float out of the windows of South Block. Antony is asking DRDO and company to get their act together so they can cash in on this bonanza.

The ministry's hope is that these State-owned firms will absorb some imported technologies, recycle them and preserve the myth of indigenous defence production for another decade. The subtext to Antonyspeak should be: you need to change so you can keep pulling the wool over India's eyes.

The defence ministry loves the term 'technology transfer'. These are weasel words. Every study shows this to be a way to temporarily get obsolete knowhow. Transfers are like cheat-sheets. They keep you from doing the hard work of really learning something. The State-owned defence firms are like students who mug enough to get past each exam and graduate with blank minds.

In 2005, DRDO spoke of making 70% of Indian defence equipment at home. But the figures haven't change in all these years, says Air Vice-Marshal Kapil Kak of the Centre for Air Power Studies. "Government stonewalling has meant there has been no energising of the defence sector." Officially, India is at 30% indigenisation. So much of this is screwdriver work, says Brigadier Gurmeet Kanwal of the Centre for Land Warfare Studies, "That the actual figure is 20% or less."

The Tatra truck, left-hand drive after 25 years, is only a more glaring example of this import-and-assemble game.--------------
Riaz Haq said…
Here's a Khaleej Times report on Pakistan's shipbuilding ambitions:

Pakistan is actively considering to fabricate and sell ships to the interested countries, which would add value to the business of defence production of Pakistan, Pakistan Ambassador to the UAE, Jamil Ahmed Khan has said.

Khan was addressing the naval officers of Pakistan Navy during a visit to Pakistan Naval Task Group ships Madadgar and Shujaat which are currently on a good will visit to the UAE. The ships are Pakistan’s indigenous construction and can perform all operational tasks assigned to them.

Khan said that certain countries have shown their interest in these indigenously built ships.

The Ambassador extended his gratitude to UAE government for its support in conducting joint naval exercise. “Pakistan and the UAE enjoy deep rooted, cordial relations which are further strengthened by cooperation between the Naval forces of Pakistan and the UAE,” he said.

The joint naval exercise between Pakistan and the UAE during their current voyage is yet another manifestation of military cooperation between the two countries, Khan added.

PNS Madadgar was built in Pakistan and was launched in 2009 while PNS Shujaat also indigenously built ship was inducted in Pakistan Navy in 1999. The two ships have been utilised in various military, constabulary and benign roles and are highly suitable to perform counter terrorism task in coastal areas.

The Ambassador was briefed about the visits of various operational and training institutes of UAE by PNTG Commander and conduct of joint naval exercise between the Naval ships of Pakistan and the UAE. The ships are part of PNTG presently visiting friendly countries in the Gulf.
Riaz Haq said…
Here's a Guardian report on Pakistan's efforts to develop combat drones:

Islamabad, which publicly condemns attacks by US drones on militants in tribal areas by the Afghan border, has built its own

Pakistan is on the cusp of joining an elite group of countries capable of manufacturing unmanned aircraft capable of killing as well as spying, a senior defence official has claims.
Publicly, Islamabad, which officially objects to lethal drone strikes carried out by the CIA along its border with Afghanistan, says it is only developing remote-controlled aircraft for surveillance purposes.
But last week, during a major arms fair held in Karachi, military officials briefed some of Pakistan's closest allies about efforts by the army to develop its own combat unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV).
"The foreign delegates were quite excited by what Pakistan has achieved," said the official, who was closely involved with organising the four-day International Defence Exhibition and Seminar (Ideas). "They were briefed about a UAV that can be armed and has the capability to carry a weapon payload."
The official said Pakistan wanted to demonstrate to friendly countries, principally Turkey and the Gulf, that it can be self-sufficient in a technology that is revolutionising warfare and which is currently dominated by a handful of countries that do not readily share the capability.
"It does not have the efficiency and performance as good as Predator," he said, referring to the US combat drone widely used to attack militant targets. "But it does exist."
He gave no details about the capabilities of the aircraft, or even its name.
Huw Williams, an expert on unmanned systems at Jane's Defence Weekly, expressed doubts that Pakistan could have succeeded in progressing very far from the "pretty basic" small reconnaissance drones, which the country publicly exhibited at the weapons show, including the Shahpar and Uqab aircraft developed by the state-owned consortium Global Industrial and Defence Solutions.
"The smaller systems are not greatly beyond that of a model aircraft," he said. "But the larger, long-endurance drones are a step up in technology across the board."
Only the US and Israel are currently believed to have drones that can fire missiles. China and Turkey are also working on large-scale combat drones.
Both countries exhibited models of drones at the sprawling Karachi conference centre, which included Pakistani companies marketing everything from guns that shoot around corners to inflatable tanks intended to fox surveillance aircraft.
The big claims about Pakistan's developing drone capacity highlights the enormous interest in the technology from armies around the world.
"Everyone has been asking us whether our drones can carry weapons," said Raja Sabri Khan, chief executive of Integrated Dynamics, a company that showed off a wide range of small and mid-size reconnaissance drones. "But that's a business for the big boys only."
Khan has been deliberately refocusing his company's efforts on smaller drones, many of which are launched by hand, which are mostly intended for civilian use.
A Pakistani army colonel attending the exhibition, after recently finishing a tour fighting against militants in the country's border region, said such small drones were a vital tool.
Organisers conceded that this year had not been a major commercial success but were pleased with the turnout after the last event in 2010 had to be cancelled.
Several exhibitors said Pakistani companies – many of which are directly owned by the country's military – offered a cheaper alternative to developing countries looking to buy everything from tanks to computer simulators used to train pilots.
Riaz Haq said…
Here's Washington Post on Pakistan's armed drone development program:

KARACHI, Pakistan — Pakistan is secretly racing to develop its own armed drones, frustrated with U.S. refusals to provide the aircraft, but is struggling in its initial tests with a lack of precision munitions and advanced targeting technology.

One of Islamabad’s closest allies and Washington’s biggest rivals, China, has offered to help by selling Pakistan armed drones it developed. But industry experts say there is still uncertainty about the capabilities of the Chinese aircraft.
Inaugurating a defense exhibition in the southern city of Karachi last week, Pakistani Prime Minister Raja Pervaiz Ashraf indicated Islamabad would look for help from Beijing in response to U.S. intransigence.
Pakistan has also been working to develop armed drones on its own, said Pakistani military officials and civilians involved in the domestic drone industry, all of whom spoke on condition of anonymity because of the classified nature of the work.

Pakistan first began weapons tests seven or eight months ago with the Falco, an Italian drone used by the Pakistani air force for surveillance that has been modified to carry rockets, said a civilian with knowledge of the secret program. The military is also conducting similar tests with the country’s newest drone, the Shahpur, he said. An unarmed version of the Shahpur was unveiled for the first time at the Karachi exhibition.

The weapons tests have been limited to a handful of aircraft, and no strikes have been carried out in combat, said the civilian.

Pakistan lacks laser-guided missiles like the Hellfire used on U.S. Predator and Reaper drones and the advanced targeting system that goes with it, so the military has been using unguided rockets that are much less accurate.

While Hellfire missiles are said to have pinpoint accuracy, the rockets used by Pakistan have a margin of error of about 30 meters (100 feet) at best, and an unexpected gust of wind could take them 300 meters (1,000 feet) from their intended target, said the civilian. Even if Pakistan possessed Hellfires and the guidance system to use them, the missile’s weight and drag would be a challenge for the small drones produced by the country.

Pakistan’s largest drone, the Shahpur, has a wingspan of about seven meters (22 feet) and can carry 50 kilograms (110 pounds). The U.S. Predator, which can be equipped with two Hellfire missiles, has a wingspan more than twice that and a payload capacity over four times as great.

Pakistani drones also have much more limited range than those produced in the U.S. because they are operated based on “line of sight” using radio waves, rather than military satellites. The Shahpur has a maximum range of 250 kilometers (150 miles), while the Predator can fly over five times that distance.


The market for drones has exploded in Pakistan and other countries around the world in recent years, as shown by the array of aircraft on display at the defense exhibition in Karachi. Hoping to tap into a worldwide market worth billions of dollars a year, public and private companies wheeled out over a dozen drones that ranged in size from hand-held models meant to be carried in a backpack to larger aircraft like the Shahpur.

All the Pakistani drones on display were advertised as unarmed and meant for surveillance only. One private company, Integrated Dynamics, even promotes its aircraft under the slogan “Drones for Peace.” But several models developed by the Chinese government were marketed as capable of carrying precision missiles and bombs....
Riaz Haq said…
Here's a News report on Pak defense industry growth:

KARACHI: With a value of $6.3 billion in 2009, the Pakistani defence industry is expected to reach $10.4 billion by 2015. This is due to large scale investments to cope with increased international instability and its active participation in the war on terror.

Pakistan has been making efforts to boost itself in this regard and it’a evident that much attention has been given towards the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) sector. Pakistan can now boast of its capacity to develop, design and manufacture UAVs indigenously and can proudly showcase a long list of public and private companies actively in the sector, producing many such products that are gaining increasing popularity internationally.

Pakistan Ordinance Factories (POF) produces seventy major products, including automatic rifles, light/medium and heavy machine guns, a wide range of mortar and artillery ammunition, aircraft and anti ammunition, tank and anti tank ammunition, bomb grenades, land, pyrotechnics and signals stores.

Owing to these rising trends and developments in the Pakistani defence industry, the country’s defence exports have tripled to around $300 million.

In this backdrop, IDEAS-2012 proved very fruitful for the national defence industry as a number of major joint initiatives took place during this prestigious exhibition, including China’s Poly Technologies will be providing mine resistant ambush vehicles to the Pakistan Army for the first time. The type CS/VP3 vehicle is designed to provide secure transportation for combat personnel and materials, especially under the threat of anti-tank mines. Besides, it will also be beneficial for performing anti-terrorism and anti-riot missions. The combat product will also feature modern day telecommunication and navigation technologies, including GPS.

Interestingly, Poly Technologies has actively cooperated with Pakistan for the provision of advanced defence equipments and technologies.

China Shipbuilding Trading Corporation (CSTC) will be providing four new ships to the Pakistan Navy this year. CSTC has been working with the Karachi Shipyard since long. Pakistan has been importing the F-22P multi-purpose frigate from China for the past three years, as this product is exclusively manufactured for Pakistan. The new frigate will be well-equipped with air surveillance, navigation, missile launch and a gun weapon system.

During IDEAS-2012, Heavy Industries Taxila (HIT) Pakistan and Narinco Corporation of China signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU), through which both the companies will be working towards joint marketing of Al-Khalid tank and various other products. The MoU is based on Transfer and Technology (ToT) and is a result of public-private partnership (PPP) between the two nations for the first time.

Al–Khalid tank, which was developed jointly by Pakistan and China in the 90’s, has been marketed internationally by China but the new contract will allow Pakistan to pursue its marketing initiatives as well. In addition, both the companies will also be working on various other products, including security equipments and security vehicles.

Similarly, a MoU and exclusive teaming agreement between Havelsan – a global software and systems integration company, serving in IT and defence markets worldwide – and the Pakistan Air force is due to be signed very soon, regarding collaboration on research and development projects and simulation and training systems of JF-17, F-16, C-130 Super Mushak, and MI-17, respectively.

Havelsan has already delivered three systems to Pakistan’s armed forces, namely Artillery Forward Observer Simulator, Electronic Warfare Test and Training Range, and Military Enterprise Information System.....$104-billion-by-2015
Riaz Haq said…
Here's a Wall Street Journal story on Pakistani plans to build drones:

This country's defense industry is building what companies hope will be a domestic fleet of aerial drones that can take over the U.S.'s role in attacking militant strongholds.

The U.S.'s persistent use of armed drones to kill militants in remote parts of Pakistan has created a public backlash that has damaged the relationship between the two nations.

But Pakistan isn't altogether against drones. The nation's leaders want to have more control over where and how they are used, and are encouraging local drone makers to build up the country's budding arsenal.

"The future era is toward unmanned operations," said Sawd Rehman, deputy director of Rawalpindi, Pakistan-based Xpert Engineering, which builds aerial drones. "The policy of self-reliance is always priority No. 1 of every nation."


Instead, Xpert and a small number of other companies are working to develop the country's own fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles—a force they hope will one day supplant the American drones that dominate the country's border with Afghanistan.

"We have tried our best asking the United States to transfer this technology to us so we can fight our own war instead of somebody from abroad coming and doing it," said Maj. Gen. Tahir Ashraf Khan, director general of Pakistan's Defense Export Promotion Organization. "Those efforts did not meet with success, so we decided to venture into this field ourselves—and we have gone pretty far ahead."

Pakistan's military already uses a small but growing number of unarmed drones, some of them manufactured at home, to monitor the borders, coast and mountain ranges that serve as sanctuaries for some of the world's most wanted militant leaders, including the Taliban and its allied Haqqani Network.


Without advanced satellite technology, the Pakistanis are incapable of developing armed drones by themselves now. It will take years, if not decades, for Pakistan to develop a fleet of armed drones to rival America's Predator and Reaper models, many analysts and people in the industry say.


To expand its capabilities, Pakistan is looking for help from China, which has marketed its own version of armed drones to developing countries.

"Pakistan can also benefit from China in defense collaboration, offsetting the undeclared technological apartheid," Pakistan Prime Minister Raja Pervez Ashraf said at a recent arms expo in Karachi, in apparent reference to U.S. reluctance to share its technology with Pakistan.

GIDS produces one of Pakistan's newest and most advanced drones, a medium-range vehicle called the Shahpar that can fly for about seven hours—a fraction of the 40 hours a Predator can spend in the sky.

To supplement its nascent drone industry, Pakistan has been working with Italy's Selex Galileo SpA to produce a medium-range Falco drone with limited capabilities that the Pakistani military has been using for surveillance since at least 2009, when the government staged operations against militants based in Swat Valley in northeastern Pakistan.

While Pakistan has looked to other countries to advance its drone capabilities, one Pakistani company said it has exported a small number of drones to a private company in the U.S.

Raja Sabri Khan, chief executive of Integrated Dynamics, a Karachi-based drone manufacturer, said he thought the U.S.'s use of armed drones has given the industry a bad name. He aims to help rehabilitate the perception of drones by promoting their peaceful uses, such as the ability to locate flood victims for rescue. "Drones can be used for saving lives, for security," he said. "I'm absolutely against drones for armed purposes."
Riaz Haq said…
Here's Gulf Today o Pak participation in IDEX 2013 in Abu Dhabi:

ABU DHABI: As many as 10 high profile and 14 auxiliary defence production companies of Pakistan will participate in the largest defence exhibition in the Mena region, International Defence Exhibition and Conference (Idex), starting from Feb.17 to 21 in Abu Dhabi.

This was stated by the Jamil Ahmad Khan, Pakistan ambassador, while briefing the media on Pakistan’s participation in this exhibition in Abu Dhabi on Thursday.

He said that it was a matter of great pride for us that for the first time in the history of Idex Pakistan has added a new dimension to this exhibition by displaying its indigenously modified and upgraded submarine ‘Khalid.’

“Besides the submarine, a Multi-Purpose Auxiliary Craft (MPAC), ‘Jurrat’ fabricated in Pakistan with full integration of weaponry and the destroyer ‘ShahJahan’ modified as per our own requirement and integration of warfare will be on display,” he added.

He said that Pakistan is indigenously meeting the defence production requirements of its armed forces besides exporting to 40 countries across the globe.

“We are offering affordable solutions for the defence needs of all countries, especially the countries which are looking for low cost affordable solutions. This is what the 52 participating countries and more than 6,000 attendees of this exhibition can benefit from,” he added.

He emphasised that Pakistan is a peace-loving country and desires to live in peace and harmony with the world but the regional security situation has become complex and uncertain.

He said that Pakistan’s defence industry is compelled to develop a response that is proportionate to challenges that confront the country.

“Events like Idex-2013 provide a unique opportunity for Pakistan’s defence related industries both in public and private sectors to display their products and interact directly with the defence industry of the developed world. This also creates a good opportunity to reinforce the diplomatic efforts in the domain of defence diplomacy,” he added.
Riaz Haq said…
Here's DefenseNews on Pak integrating weapon systems in aircraft and subs:

Most recent major military developments have aimed to strengthen the nuclear deterrent, such as the unveiling of the Hatf IX/Nasr battlefield ballistic missile and the submarine-launched variant of the Babur cruise missile.

However, analysts are uncertain if the airborne arm of the nuclear triad is set to be similarly strengthened with the introduction of the JF-17 in this role.

Tufail said the Ra’ad’s integration onto the JF-17 would be very beneficial.

“It would certainly add to PAF’s [Pakistan Air Force’s] stealthy ingress capability [due to low cross-section of the cruise missile], considering that the parent aircraft do not have it,” he said.

However, Mansoor Ahmed, from Quaid-e-Azam University’s Department of Defence and Strategic Studies, and who specializes in Pakistan’s national deterrent and delivery program, is unconvinced that replacement of the Mirages with the JF-17 is imminent.

“The Mirage is a tested and well-integrated platform, it would take some time to have the Thunder in large numbers to do the job”, he said.

“Secondly, how good are the Thunder’s ground attack/avionics capabilities compared to the ROSE Mirages?”

Tufail, who flew the Mirage operationally, does not see the Ra’ad-capable Mirages as “less credible as a nuclear deterrent in any way.”

“However, the JF-17 would certainly be a better and more modern platform, about which there should be no debate. As and when the JF-17s attain full operational capability with the Ra’ad, that role will be withdrawn from the Mirages, but that is not to mean that the Mirages would be retired — they do a lot more than just carry Ra’ads,” he said.

“The Mirages would be retired as they outlive their airframe hours or run out of spares support, which I see starting to happen over the next five years or so.”

Depending on the material state of the Mirage aircraft, Ahmed said they should give the PAF enough time to bring the Block III variant of the JF-17 into service, which is to have an improved avionics suite.

Mahmood said the avionics suite of the Block III variant is not yet finalized as the PAF is “looking for something to give more operational capability, and still examining avionics options.”

A perennial issue for the JF-17 has been the question of the continued availability of its powerplant. Currently, it is powered by a Russian Klimov RD-93.

It has been speculated for some time that the JF-17 will eventually be powered by a Chinese engine, a possible thrust vector control (TVC) variant of the Guizhou WS-13 Taishan.

Mahmood, however, would only say that the engine “depends on customers,” and that “we have options with regards to engines; we’re not restricted.”

Tufail is unconvinced a TVC variant is a necessity at present.

“Personally, I don’t see the JF-17 as a ‘do-all’ fighter, and I feel that it needs other areas to be looked at for modifications, rather than just follow fads,” he said.

“TVC helps in air combat maneuvering, whose days are numbered, if one goes by the technological developments underway. If that be true, it would make much more sense to focus on enhancing BVR [beyond visual range] capabilities, including radar and weapons, which need to be constantly upgraded during the life of an aircraft.”

The JF-17 is only rated to plus 8g, and for this reason Tufail said “the JF-17 cannot fully exploit the TVC potential, which a 9g aircraft can do far better.”|head
Riaz Haq said…
Here's a Daily Times report on AI and Robotics education in Pakistan:

ISLAMABAD: Robotics as a discipline of science and technology is being taught at the graduate and post-graduate levels by more than 60 universities of Engineering Science and Technology in Pakistan, official sources told Daily Times here on Saturday.

The research and development (R&D) in advanced fields of Robotics and Artificial Intelligence has also been undertaken by some of laboratories established in the R&D institutes and universities in Pakistan. The official in the Ministry of Science and Technology claimed that there is a technical group engaged in development of automation of industrial processes at the National Institute of Electronics (NIE), Islamabad. The group has developed Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs), which are used in automatic industrial controls.

The Centre for Intelligent Machines and Robotics (IMR) at the COMSATS Institute of Information Technology has a Research Group, which is undertaking research related to robotics, computer vision and machine learning. The IMR Research Group is conducting basic and applied research in robotics technologies relevant to industrial and societal tasks; the robotics technology in Pakistan has the potential role in boosting the productivity and competitiveness. The researchers at CIIT are working for projects on visual guided robotic systems for use in surgery, navigation control, mapping and geometric representation of environmental parameters.

National Engineering Robotics Contest (NERC) is an inter universities robotics competition held annually since 2005 at the NUST. The contest is organised by HEC, the Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Careers Project with more than 60 Pakistani universities participating in the event, and aims to train individuals for engineering services in Pakistan, and cash prizes are awarded to the winners.

NERC 2011 held at the College of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering (EME), Rawalpindi from June 28 to July 2. Many universities like FAST, GIKI, LUMS, CASE and UET Lahore participated in the event, where students were encouraged to design, develop and programme their respective robots.

R&D projects on Tele-Surgical Training Robot and Simulators and Development of Intelligent Robotic Wheelchairs are being undertaken by NUST funded by ICT R&D Fund.

International workshops and seminars for knowledge sharing and events at national level for talent hunt among youth in the fields of robotics have been organised regularly at NUST. Specialisation in robotics is a popular choice for students going abroad to study under various scholarships schemes for research and PhD. This field offers job opportunities, and robotics engineers can apply their mastery in diverse fields like modern warfare, surgery, nano-technology and space-exploration.

The official claimed that developing a robot comes with the goal of finding a solution to the problem. Along with the technical know-how, interest in research is essential. This field has promising opportunities, with no boundaries and will continue to grow with the advancement of science and technology in the near future.\02\10\story_10-2-2013_pg5_12
Riaz Haq said…
Here's a TOI report on China arms sales and co-production with Pakistan:

WASHINGTON: Asserting that China has signed agreements for arms exports worth USD 11 billion from 2007 to 2011, the Pentagon has said that Pakistan remains Beijing's primary customer for conventional weapons.

"From 2007 to 2011, China signed approximately USD 11 billion in agreements for conventional weapons systems worldwide, ranging from general purpose materiel to major weapons systems," the Pentagon told the Congress in its annual report on China.

In 2012 and the coming years, China's arms exports will likely increase modestly as China's domestic defence industry improves, it said, adding that Chinese defence firms are marketing and selling arms throughout the world with the bulk of their sales to Asia and the Middle East/North Africa.

In 2012, China unveiled the Yi Long tactical unmanned aerial vehicle, which will probably be marketed to developing countries, it said.

Pakistan, it said, remains its primary customer for conventional weapons. "China engages in both arms sales and defence industrial cooperation with Islamabad, including co-production of the JF-17 fighter aircraft, F-22P frigates with helicopters, K-8 jet trainers, F-7 fighter aircraft, early warning and control aircraft, tanks, air-to-air missiles, anti-ship cruise missiles, and cooperation on main battle tank production," the Pentagon report said.

"We describe in this report China's bilateral military interactions with other countries, including Pakistan. China has a very longstanding historical relationship with Pakistan, and it's one that we watch and we report on in this report," deputy assistant secretary of defence for East Asia David Helvey told reporters during a Pentagon news conference.

Helvey said the US is monitoring very carefully China's military modernisation, the implications of that modernisation both for opportunities to cooperate with China in a multinational or bilateral context, but also for potential implications for regional stability.

According to the report, Sub-Saharan African countries view China as a provider of low-cost weapons with fewer political strings attached compared to other international arms suppliers.

"China uses arms sales as part of a multifaceted approach to promote trade, secure access to natural resources, and extend its influence in the region," it said.
Riaz Haq said…
Indigenous drone squadrons inducted in Pakistan Army and Air Force, reports Express Tribune:

The armed forces announced on Monday that they had inducted the very first fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) in the Army and the Air Force.
According to a release from the Inter-services Public Relations (ISPR) announced that the first fleet of strategic drones, ‘Burraq’ and ‘Shahpar’, had been inducted into the forces. Both of the drones were produced indigenously.
The military described the induction as a “landmark and historic event,” where a “very effective force multiplier has been added to the inventory of the armed forces.”
“In the future these UAVs could also be gainfully employed in various socio-economic development projects, as well,” it added, hinting at the possibility of using drones in non-combat settings and for civilian use.
The induction ceremony was attended by Chief of Army Staff General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani, Chief of the Air Staff Air Chief Marshal Tahir Rafique Butt, Director General Strategic Plans Division Lieutenant General (Retd) Khalid Ahmed Kidwai, and senior officers from armed forces, scientists and engineers.
General Kayani, while appreciating the work of NESCOM scientists and engineers, highlighted that induction of indigenously developed surveillance capable UAVs in Pakistan Armed Forces is a force multiplier, and will substantially enhance their target acquisition capabilities in real time.
Riaz Haq said…
Here's a Washington Post report on Pakistan-made drones inducted today:

Pakistan’s military unveiled two domestically produced drones Monday, even as the country is facing growing protests over U.S. drone strikes on Pakistani soil.

After years of preparation, the Strategically Unmanned Aerial Vehicles were formally announced by Gen. Ashfaq Kayani, chief of Pakistan’s military. The drones, called Burraq and Shahpar, will not be armed and are to be used only for surveillance, military officials said.

The development of the drones, thought to have a range of about 75 miles, represents a milestone for the country’s military and scientists, Pakistani and Western analysts said.

“It is a landmark and a historic event, wherein a very effective force multiplier has been added to the inventory of the armed forces,” the Pakistani military said in a statement.

For years, Pakistan’s military has seen up-close the effectiveness of the U.S. drone campaign, which has included hundreds of strikes within the country’s borders. When the United States began using armed drones after the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, then-Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf asked President George W. Bush to supply drone technology to his country.

The United States declined, setting in motion Pakistan’s homegrown effort to develop the technology.

Pakistan’s military first revealed its drone technology at a trade show last year, but Monday’s formal unveiling coincides with an ongoing farewell tour by Kayani, who is retiring after two terms as army chief.

Brig. Muhammad Saad, a former senior officer in the Pakistani military familiar with the subject, said the country already had less-sophisticated drones for intelligence gathering, with a range of about six miles. The newer models, he said, will prove useful for the “collecting of more operational intelligence” that could help guide helicopter gunships and fighter jets to specific targets.

“This is a great achievement, and the drones can be used instead of surveillance jets and fighter jets that would be costlier” to fly, Saad said.

Saad and other observers said Pakistan is still years away from being able to develop armed drones. Still, Monday’s announcement is likely to unnerve Pakistan’s neighbors, including India and Afghanistan.

Peter W. Singer, a security analyst at the Brookings Institution, said most surveillance drones can be armed, though they will lack the precision of U.S.-developed models.

“Almost any unmanned system can be armed in a crude style, such as dropping a bomb or even turning it into an equivalent of a cruise missile that you fly into the target,” said Singer, adding that the announcement will probably add to growing fears about proliferation of drone technology.

The Pakistani military’s announcement comes as the country is facing growing discontent in some parts over recent U.S. drone strikes, including an attack this month that killed the leader of the Pakistani Taliban....
Riaz Haq said…
Here's DefenseNews on Pakistani drones Burraq and Shahpar:

Shahpar is a tactical canard pusher UAV that was developed by the Advance Engineering and Research Organisation, which is part of the state-owned Global Industrial & Defence Solutions (GIDS) conglomerate.

It was revealed to the public for the first time during IDEAS2012, Pakistan’s biannual defense exhibition, in November last year.

It was claimed to be an autonomous UAV with an endurance of seven hours and which could relay data in real time out to a range of 250 kilometers.

Observers have said the Burraq appears to be a Pakistani variant or development of the Chinese Rainbow CH-3 UCAV, but little else is known beyond speculation based on the CH-3’s specifications.

Former Pakistan Air Force pilot Kaiser Tufail said additional information will be difficult to obtain for now because sources will be “wary about leaking what is considered confidential stuff.”

Reports that Pakistan was developing an armed UAV named Burraq date back to 2009. Analyst Usman Shabbir of the Pakistan Military Consortium think tank said he first became aware of the existence of the Burraq some years ago when it was still in the design stages with NESCOM.

The two may be related, but he believes Burraq is armed and Shahpar unarmed.

“Shahpar can carry about a 50-kilogram payload and has around eight hours endurance. Burraq, based on CH-3 specs, would carry around a 100-kilogram payload and 12 hours endurance,” he said.

The given payload of the CH-3 is a pair of AR-1 missiles, or a pair of FT-5 small diameter bombs.

The ability of Pakistan to field an armed UAV has great benefits when faced with time-sensitive targets, he said.

“It is important in a sense that it greatly cuts the gap from detection to shoot,” he said.

Adding, “Earlier, once you detected something and wanted it taken out you had to pass on the imagery to higher ups, who had to approve and allocate resources like aircraft and by the time the aircraft got there the bad guys were long gone. Now detect, make decision, shoot and go home — all in same loop.”

He does not believe there is any real significance in the systems being named for use with both the Army and the Air Force, however, as “both have been operating their own UAV squadrons for a while now.”

“The Army has been using German EMT Luna X-2000 and the British [Meggitt] Banshee UAVs, while PAF as we know has a lot of faith in the Italian [Selex] Falco,” he added.

The Luna was also ordered by the Pakistan Navy in June 2012.
Riaz Haq said…
Here's an Atlantic mag piece on more lethal US robotic military:

In the future, an Army brigade might have 3,000 human troops instead of 4,000, but a lot more robots, according to recent remarks by General Robert Cone, the Army's head of Training and Doctrine Command.

"I’ve got clear guidance to think about what if you could robotically perform some of the tasks in terms of maneuverability, in terms of the future of the force," Defense News reported he said in a speech at the Army Aviation Symposium.

Continuing, he noted that the Army had devoted more resources to "force protection," keeping the troops safe, at the cost of some firepower. "I think we’ve also lost a lot in lethality," Cone said.

Robots could reduce the force protection burden, giving the Army more killing power per brigade.

Those robots could be a pack bot like the Legged Squad Support System perhaps, or a conventional-looking semi or fully autonomous vehicle like Lockheed Martin's Squad Mission Support System.

The lesson? If Google is doing it, DARPA is also doing it, but with more lethality.
Riaz Haq said…
Here's a report on Pakistan supplying training aircraft to Iraqi Air Force:

Pakistan today signed a key agreement with Iraq for the supply of trainer aircraft to Iraqi Air Force, in what is billed as "major milestone" in the export of aviation products from the country.

The contract of sales of Super Mushshak Aircraft to Iraq was signed by General Anwer Hamad Ameen Ahmed, Commander Iraqi Air Force and Air Marshal Sohail Gul Khan, Chairman of the Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC) Kamra.

Super Mushshak is a more advanced, upgraded variant of the MFI-17 Mushshak basic trainer.

It was designed and is being manufactured at the Aircraft Manufacturing Factory.

"The sale of Super Mashshak aircraft to Iraqi Air Force is a major milestone in the export of aviation products of Pakistan," a statement released by the Prime Minister's Office said.

The statement did not mention how many aircraft will be sold.

Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif said that Pakistan will provide assistance to Iraq in fields of training and development.

He said Pakistan Air Force has a past a rich experience in training personnel of friendly countries and will, undoubtedly, assist in developing Iraqi Air Force on modern grounds.

He said this in a meeting with General Ahmed, who called on him at Prime Minister's house.

Federal Minister for Defence Production Rana Tanvir Hussain and Chief of Air Staff Air Marshal Tahir Rafique Butt were also present at the occasion.

In total two agreements were signed including the one for sale of the trainer aircraft.

According to the first agreement Pakistan Air Force will provide Training, to Iraq Air Defence Force personnel, in all sphere of Modern Air Force concept pertaining to different field special Air Defence, and Air Crew.
Riaz Haq said…
Here's a Defense News story on Pakistan Air Force modernization:

Financial difficulties aside, Pakistan is modernizing its air power mainly through investing in the critical JF-17 Thunder program. But the Chengdu J-10B/FC-20 order is less certain.

With a funding crunch, the Pakistan Air Force “will concentrate most resources on JF-17 to ensure its success and further development,” said Usman Shabbir, with the Pakistan Military Consortium think tank.

Last year, the Air Force admitted modernization efforts under the Armed Forces Development Plan 2025 had gone unfunded since 2007. However, Pakistan secured a Chinese loan to keep JF-17 production on track. No details, including the amount of the loan, have been made public.

Production of the second block of 50 began in December. With 50 jets in service, Pakistan’s requirement is for up to 250 planes to replace its Mirage and F-7 aircraft. It already has replaced the A-5C Fantan strike fighter with two squadrons.

The Block II JF-17 has improved avionics, weapons load and carriage capability, a data link and an electronic warfare suite, plus an in-flight refueling capability, but officials are reluctant to give specific details.

A spokesperson for the Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC), which jointly manufactures the JF-17 with China’s Chengdu Aircraft Industry Group, would say only that the avionics suite is a “mixed package” and has been contracted.

Shabbir said he believes the NRIET KLJ-7 X-band radar will have been retained for the Block I/II aircraft, and standoff weapons such as the Ra’ad air-launched cruise missile, H-2/H-4 glide bomb and Mectron MAR-1 anti-radiation missile might also have been integrated onto the Block II jets.

Multiple ejector racks will make up for a lack of additional weapon store stations, and a dedicated designator pod station could be added later underneath the plane’s port intake.

No JF-17 has been seen carrying a designator pod, but a Chinese type will likely enter service, even though Shabbir said the Pakistan Air Force’s Air Weapons Complex “has also developed one in collaboration with a European firm.”

Which firm is unknown, but PAC collaborates with European companies such as Selex ES and Sagem.

Shabbir said the addition of a separate forward-looking infrared (FLIR) sensor is unlikely, and those fitted to Mirage 5s would not be “recycled” because “the FLIR-equipped [retrofit of strike element-III] Mirages will soldier on for many years as they are specialist night attack aircraft.”
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Here's Jane's Defense 360 on Pakistan arms exports to Bahrain and Nigeria:

Pakistan has highlighted further opportunities to export its military equipment to Bahrain and Nigeria.

Government statements said that Pakistan is pursuing opportunities for further defence trade and related industrial collaboration with both nations. The government also noted its ability to offer "good offset programmes" to its defence export customers, although did not elaborate.

Following meetings between Pakistan and Nigerian defence officials on 17 March, a statement outlined opportunities to increase defence trade and joint production programmes.

Nigeria is a known target customer for the Pakistan Aeronautical Complex JF-17 Thunder aircraft, jointly developed by Pakistan and China. It has also previously expressed interest in acquiring Al-Zarrar main battle tanks produced by Heavy Industries Taxila, Kaan 33 fast attack craft constructed by Karachi Shipyard & Engineering Works, and a range of firearms.
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China Has Unveiled a New Laser System to Shoot Down Drones

A few years ago, Air Force brass noted that some "drones are useless in contested airspace," said Kreps, meaning they're no match for enemy fighter planes. But the technology has advanced quickly and more governments — including China, India, Turkey and Pakistan — are developing drone and anti-drone programs.

"The technology has become lighter and smaller, creating a different set of vulnerabilities for typical air defense systems — hence the need for this kind of system that can counter smaller-scale drones that could actually be more insidious," she said.

Since 2008, the United States has conducted more than 1,700 drone strikes in Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya, Pakistan and elsewhere, as Kreps explained in a recent Foreign Affairs article. The US has killed more than 450 people with drones, according to Kreps.

The United Kingdom has deployed drones in Afghanistan. Israel has flown drones in Palestine. Israel also shot down a drone operated by the Palestinian militant group Hamas during the Gaza Strip conflict earlier this year.

The proliferation of drones has led Kreps to question if they make warfare too easy because they don't expose pilots to danger. She and others have argued that President Barack Obama and his predecessor, George W. Bush, have routinely authorized drone attacks in airspace where they would be reluctant to send manned warplanes.

Now, China is facing similar questions as it beefs up its drone arsenal.

China and Japan have rattled sabers over Chinese drones that were flying over islands claimed by bother countries in the East China Sea. Upping the stakes, Japan last year publicly adopted a policy to shoot down drones if they ignored warnings to leave Japanese air space. That's a looser standard than for manned aircraft, which become targets only if they pose a threat to Japanese nationals. China, meanwhile, has said it would consider an attack on a drone as an act of war.

The anti-drone laser defense system is an example of China flexing its muscles at a time of rising tensions in the Pacific region, Kreps said. But it would be a shame if it emboldened Chinese leaders to go to war and jeopardize millions of lives just because Japan blew up a high-tech remote-controlled aircraft.
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KARACHI: Minister for Defence of Poduction Rana Tanveer on Wednesday said that Pakistan’s defence exports have doubled in a year – thanks to the state-of-the-art equipment being manufactured by the country’s defence industry.
He stated this while meeting the high-level delegates from around the world on the sidelines of the IDEAS-2014 at Expo Centre. The delegations from China, Qatar, Turkey, Korea, Nigeria, Afghanistan, Czech Republic, Kazakhstan, and Sudan called on the minister and appreciated the turn out of IDEAS-2014.
The minister stressed the need for greater cooperation in defence industry. He welcomed the joint ventures and agreements taking place between different world countries and Pakistan. Rana Tanveer said that Russian participation in IDEAS-2014 is very significant and Pak-Russian relations would pave the way to increase the exports of Pakistani defence products.
“We are optimistic about the cooperation between Pakistan and Russia. We have received good response from around the world and it is quite encouraging that participation of countries in IDEAS-2014 has increased as having representation of over 50 countries is a great achievement. This shows that this exhibition would further improve our export numbers,” he added.
Meanwhile, the minister met with the Afghan delegation. ‘Afghanistan must be happy to attend the exhibition. We want to see a peaceful and prosperous Afghanistan. We need to cooperate in bilateral areas and find ways of trade and cooperation. The new Afghan president is looking for cordial ties and Pakistan welcomes this approach,’ he added.
Air Force Commander Major General Wahab and Brigadier Mohammad Amir Burki were part of the Afghan delegation. They said Afghanistan will be happy to cooperate with Pakistan. Rana Tanveer said it is good news that Afghanistan is offering friendly ties with Pakistan, which is quite welcoming.
Corps Commander Karachi Naveed Mukhtar also visited IDEAS-2014 and went to different stalls. ‘It is a great opportunity to host such a mega event and honour to welcome foreign companies to showcase their defence products. I appreciate the arrangements,’ he added.
Around 256 foreign companies and 77 Pakistani firms are showcasing their products in IDEAS-2014. Badar Expo Solutions is the official event manager of IDEAS-2014.
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A recently concluded defence co-operation agreement between Russia and Pakistan will be followed up by the latter purchasing the Klimov RD-93 aircraft engines directly from Russia, Pakistan's defence minister has told IHS Jane's .

Speaking at the International Defence Exhibition and Seminar (IDEAS) 2014 in Karachi, Defence Minister Khawaja Mohammad Asif said: "We are now looking to purchase aircraft engines like the RD-93 from Russia. This is important for us."

The Sino-Pakistani-produced JF-17 Thunder fighter is powered by the Klimov RD-93, but previous engines were purchased by China from Russia and supplied to the Pakistan Aeronautical Complex at Kamra, where the JF-17s are manufactured.
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Karachi- Pakistan-made smart bomb Takbir has grabbed the attention of visitors at the IDEAS 2014 at the Expo Centre Karachi.
Pakistan Air Force’s Zubair Iqbal Malik said the bomb had the capacity to hit accurately its target within only seven seconds. It can be launched from a fighter aircraft. As soon as it is launched its wings appear and dodging the hurdles in its way it hits the target with 250 kg explosive material. It has a range of 80 to 100 kilometers.
Saudi defense delegation takes keen interest in Takbir and other defense products like drones, Al-Khalid tank and F-17 jet fighters. Saudi delegation also call on army chief Gen. Sharif at side line of Ideas 2014 expo in Karachi.
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Excerpt From Wall Street Journal on IDEAS 2014:

“Ideas 2014 is our biggest exhibition so far,” said Commodore Tahir Javed, a senior official with Pakistan’s Defense Export Promotion Organization, the event’s organizers. “We have received overwhelming response from around the globe.”

He said 333 companies exhibited their wares at this year’s show, compared with 209 in 2012. Chinese and Turkish firms, in particular, had a strong presence, with a hall dedicated for each of the countries’ representatives.

The Pakistani military has long had a diverse source of weapons suppliers: Pakistan’s air force, for instance, flies the F-16 fighter made by U.S.-based Lockheed Martin Corp. , but its military also operates Chinese and Russian hardware.

Russia’s military exporters also had a significant presence in this year’s Karachi arms fair, showcasing helicopters and electronic-warfare equipment. Pakistan has been using the Mi-17 transport helicopter as a workhorse of army operations since 1959, and Islamabad recently struck a deal for Russia’s more advanced Mi-35 attack helicopter.

“We have reached a deal for a small number of the Mi-35, which is easily serviceable here,” said Minister for Defense Production Rana Tanveer Hussain. He didn’t elaborate on the deal, saying details would be given at a signing ceremony in a couple of months.

Officials said the Mi-35 would be particularly useful in the country’s counterinsurgency campaign. They also added that one of the most valuable assets in the fight has been the JF-17 fighter jet, a multi-role aircraft jointly developed by China’s Chengdu Aircraft Corp. and the Pakistan Aeronautical Complex. The JF-17, which has day and night attack capabilities, was a centerpiece of the exhibit.

Military officials in Pakistan say the jet represents a step for Pakistan as a producer and potential exporter of bigger and more sophisticated weapons systems. Officials said Egypt and Nigeria were particularly interested in the JF-17.

“We have received orders from four countries in the Middle East and Africa for at least a squadron each of the plane,” said Mr. Hussain.

While the JF-17 fighter was in many respects the star of the show, the exhibition also offered international firms entry into a potentially lucrative domestic security market. Organizers said some of the most dramatic growth has been seen in the armored car market for private firms and individuals, as well as for security agencies.

Increased lawlessness has fueled a boom in demand for armored cars. Company executives and landlords are often targeted by terror groups to finance their activities, particularly in Karachi, Pakistan’s business capital. Dozens have been kidnapped or attacked after being held up at gunpoint.

Dinshaw Anklesaria, the owner of Pakarmor, an armored-car manufacturer based in Karachi, said the market had potential but that government restrictions on imports had stymied some growth. He said his company, as a local manufacturer, was required to obtain a no-objection certificate from the government for every piece imported for armoring a vehicle.

“It’s detrimental for local manufacturers, and helps large multinationals or those exporting from abroad and should be revised,” he said.

More than 300 police officers have been killed in targeted attacks since January 2013 in Karachi alone. Police officials said a majority of these attacks took place either while on patrol or traveling near neighborhoods that are militant or criminal strongholds. Often, the only way to clear and control these areas is with armored trucks.
Riaz Haq said…
Pakistan-made POF Eye is a special-purpose hand-held weapon system similar in concept to the CornerShot that can fire weapons around corners. It was first revealed at the 5th International Defense Exhibition and Seminar (IDEAS 2008), held at the Karachi Expo Centre in November 2008.[2][3] It is designed for SWAT and special forces teams in hostile situations, particularly counter-terrorism and hostage rescue operations. It allows its operator to both see and attack an armed target without exposing the operator to counter-attack.

Video report on Pakistan POF Eye bendable gun that uses laser and video targeting to shoot around corners.
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ISLAMABAD: The country’s indigenous defence production has reached $1.5 billion per annum, according to a report published in the Jane’s Defence Weekly. The journal quoted an unnamed Pakistani official as saying: “We have substituted imported defence equipment worth $1.5bn [per year], which for us is a huge bonus.”

The defence industry has often been criticised for being inefficient and low tech because of which the cost of its products has been higher than that of comparable items in the international market.

But, the government’s decision to grant first right of refusal to the local industry, which is state-controlled, helped the ailing industry in boosting its sales. The right of refusal has not been fully accorded as Sindh province is yet to comply.

Under the first right of refusal, local buyers have to accord preference to local industry for their procurements. The Minister for Defence Production Rana, Tanvir Hussain, was quoted by the Jane’s as saying: “We have achieved self-sufficiency in several areas of defence production. We cannot lower our guard against the threat from our adversaries.”

Of the $1.5bn defence hardware produced locally, Pakistan Aeronautical Complex at Kamra, which manufactures JF-17 Thunder fighter jet, Mushak and Super Mushak aircraft and produced equipment worth a billion dollars last year.

Supplies worth another $500 million came from other production facilities catering for the Army and the Navy. These included the Heavy Industries Taxila (HIT) and the Pakistan Ordnance Factories (POF).

The Taxila complex builds Al Khalid and Al Zarrar tanks along with armoured personnel carriers, while POF produces small arms and medium-sized weapon systems for the armed forces. Another major contributor has been the Karachi Shipyard and Engineering Works.

Despite the progress made by the local defence industry in meeting the needs of the armed forces, it (the defence industry) has not been able to find buyers for its products in the international market.

Officials are hopeful of some deals materialising in near future, including one for sale of JF-17 Thunder jets.

“For years officials have hoped a major export order for one of these would put the country on the list of the world’s emerging arms exporters,” Jane’s noted. It added that there was a small ray of hope, however. Nigeria, it said, was due to finalise plans to buy 15 to 30 units of the JF-17 in what would be the fighter’s first export.
Riaz Haq said…
This test means the Hatf/Vengeance VIII Ra'ad (Thunder) has now been officially tested five times since 2007. It is generally comparable to the Anglo/French Storm Shadow or US AGM-158 joint air-to-surface standoff missile, but exact specifications are not available.

Analyst, author and former Air Commodore Kaiser Tufail said, "The test firing was a typical combo of a technical upgrade timed with political signaling, something that both India and Pakistan have turned into an art form."

Mansoor Ahmed, lecturer in the Department of Defence and Strategic Studies at Islamabad's Quaid-e-Azam University, who specializes in Pakistan's nuclear program and its delivery systems, said the test was not in answer to India's test-firing of its Agni V intermediate range ballistic missile.

The Agni V was test fired on Saturday.

"I am not sure if this is a tit-for-tat response," he said. "The fact that it is a 350 kilometer vs. a 5,000-8,000 kilometer test reflects Pakistan's emphasis on credible minimum deterrence with only an India-centric posture, while India is clearly moving far beyond the requirements of a minimum deterrent driven by global power projection ambitions."

Instead, he believes the test was part of ongoing efforts on "improving the effectiveness and validating the enhanced operational parameters of existing delivery systems that comprise the country's nascent triad."

He added, "Ra'ad and the land and sea versions of the Babur cruise missiles offer diversification in targeting options, greater operational and deployable flexibility and increase the overall survivability of its deterrent force."

He says the two cruise missiles are especially important for Pakistan's nascent "posture of full spectrum deterrence with added emphasis on counter-value targeting to offset India's strategic and conventional force modernization," which are integral aspects of India's "emerging proactive operations strategy."

Ra'ad is claimed to be operational, but is such a critical weapon it is still somewhat cloaked in secrecy.

Ahmed, however, said Ra'ad may have "finally matured as an operational and deployable system," but "this might also be a batch test coupled with the possible completion/accomplishment of required miniaturization of suitable warheads for this system. Hence this test."

He believes that aside from technical improvements, the timing is significant in terms of its non-conventional strike capabilities.

"Range remains the same; the only thing that might have improved is accuracy, guidance and control parameters, etc. Also this test comes at a time when plutonium production for miniaturized warheads is meeting the operational requirements, with the commissioning of the fourth production reactor at Khushab," he said.

Despite being described as a conventional and non-conventional weapon, analysts like Tufail are unconvinced Ra'ad can effectively be employed by Pakistan in the conventional role.

"Platforms like the Ra'ad have limited use as conventional weapons launching platforms, because a payload of 450-kilograms [at best] can do little harm unless launched in a shower of a few score, something that would be outrageously costly," he said.

"Glide bombs are an economical choice for stand-off delivery of conventional weapons," he added.

Indeed, Pakistan does seem to have made further steps in this regard and showcased the latest of its glide bombs, the Global Industrial Defence Solutions' 'Takbir', at December's IDEAS2014 defense exhibition.

The Ra'ad has been tested on the Mirage III strike aircraft, but it is unknown if it has been integrated onto Pakistan's F-16s.

Tufail said it is more likely the JF-17 will be the next delivery platform.
Riaz Haq said…
No US Military Planes Will Fly At #ParisAirShow; #Pakistan’s #JF17 will as will #rafale … via @BreakingDefense

One of the most intriguing aircraft to come to the show is the Pakistani JF-17 Thunder, designed and built jointly by China and Pakistan. Three of the aircraft left yesterday for Paris from Pakistan. One will fly, one will be on static display and the other is, presumably, a backup. The aircraft is presumably being shown to see if Pakistan and China can attract any export customers. It’s currently scheduled to fly on Tuesday afternoon.
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#Pakistan Continues Arms Export Efforts. #JF17 via @defense_news

Pakistan's Defence Export Promotion Organization (DEPO) unveiled a new exhibition center showcasing defense products from the country's public and private sectors in the presence of Defence Production Minister Tanveer Hussain, foreign diplomats and defense officials as part of efforts to increase exports.

Increased export efforts have been underway for some time. Already experiencing some success has been state-owned conglomerate Pakistan Ordnance Factories (POF), a producer of small arms, ammunition and explosives.


The official has has led to the production of an improved anti-personnel round for the ubiquitous RPG-7 now used by the army in ongoing counter terror/insurgency operations. However, no tandem warhead anti-tank round has been developed to replace the obsolete unitary round still in service, even though it would be commercially successful.

Similarly, development of the PK-8, an improved Heckler & Koch HK33K 5.56mm assault rifle, was abandoned after the army dropped its requirement for a weapon of that exact caliber. The 7.62mm G3S, a carbine/para variant of the army's current G3P4 battle rifle, was ultimately adopted.

He admitted that the lack of a 5.56mm product hampered POF's earning potential, especially in the $5 billion US civilian market, but said little could be done by POF itself as it was dependent on development funds and direction from the government.

Pakistan, however, continues to forge closer defense cooperation links with countries it already has good military relations with. On Monday, the Malaysian army chief, Gen. Tan Sri Raja Mohamed Affandi Bin Raja Mohamed Noor, visited senior defense officials here including the head of Pakistan's army, Gen. Raheel Sharif, during which closer defense cooperation was discussed.

Further improving the already very strong Pakistani-Turkish defense relationship also was discussed recently during a meeting between defense officials from both countries here on Oct. 2 ahead of the 11th High Level Military Dialogue Group scheduled for November.

Pakistan has also sought to increase cooperation with newer partners including the Czech Republic, the deputy defense minister of which, Tomas Kuchta, met Sharif at Army Headquarters Tuesday. Closer defense relations are also being pursued with Poland, but there has been no agreement with that country as of yet.

Though receiving some official promotional help, private-sector companies have hitherto largely forged their own paths.

However, Nooruddin F Daud of Daudsons Armoury, a successful private-sector small arms manufacturer that also supplies bombs and weapon mounts to the military, who attended the DEPO launch, hopes for improvement.

"I am very confident indeed. We have our toe in the door. Now we need the government's assistance," he said.

As to how the government could help the private sector, however, he replied, "The fact has to be realized that each industry and product category has its own peculiar demands and requirements. There can't be blanket rules and assistance."

Daudsons Armoury officials are hopeful their new products – an automatic 40mm grenade launcher, an under-barrel grenade launcher and remote/undercover weapon mount able to be armed with a 7.62mm MG3 machine gun for security posts – will win exports.

However, analyst, author and former Australian defense attaché to Islamabad Brian Cloughley says Pakistan has a strong defense industrial base, but this may not be enough to ensure increased export success.

"Pakistan's defense industry is well-organized and produces high-quality material, especially in the way of ammunition, but the world market is saturated with defense products and it is extremely difficult to break into what is effectively a closed shop," he said.
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#China, #Pakistan to jointly export upgraded jet fighter #JF17 #DubaiAirshow … via @ibnlive

Beijing: China and Pakistan will jointly export an upgraded version of the JF-17 multi-role fighter jet co-produced by the two countries since 1998. Officials from Aviation Industry Corporation of China (AVIC) and the Pakistani Air Force (PAF) command said on Monday at the ongoing Dubai Airshow that an upgraded version of the jointly developed JF-17 fighter jet is expected to be exported to more customers.
Briefing reporters at Al Maktoum International Airport in Dubai, Liu Yu, Vice President of China National Aero-Technology Import & Export Corporation, said the next generation of the JF-17 Thunder fighter aircraft will satisfy the growing market demand from third parties "as the future JF-17 aircraft is a comprehensive elevation of the aircraft."

The future JF-17 will have more advanced capabilities, such as air-to-air refuelling, data link and electronic warfare, and will be integrated with more new guided weapons, state-run Xinhua quoted Liu as saying in Dubai. A dual-seated version of the JF-17 fighter/trainer is also under development, added Liu.
China, which maintained close strategic relations with Pakistan military for long has recently reached USD five billion deal to provide eight submarines to its all-weather ally. PAF Vice Marshal Arshad Malik said the Pakistani army expects the new version JF-17 jet to get into service by the end of 2016.

The JF-17 fighter is co-produced by AVIC and PAF since 1998 based on the principle of "joint investment, joint development, and sharing risks and returns." At present, JF-17 fighter is already procured by a third party customer, and several potential customers are conducting or plan to conduct the evaluation of the JF-17 fighter, Xinhua report said without giving details. The 14th Dubai International Airshow officially kicked off in Dubai yesterday and will run through Thursday.`
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#Pakistan Assists #Nigeria with Ammunition, Aircraft Maintenance in War Against #BokoHaram | THISDAY LIVE: …

The Pakistani government has disclosed that they have been assisting Nigeria’s counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency operations against Boko Haram terrorists, in the area of ammunition supplies and maintenance of military aircraft.

This disclosure was made on Tuesday in Abuja by the Pakistani Ambassador to Nigeria, Agha Umar Farook, during his meeting with the Minister of Defence, Mr. Dan-Ali,
Farook said that both countries with shared history have sustained their defence ties for over five decades.

He noted that the relationship in the area of security is further strengthened in the equally shared experience of terrorism and insurgency.
He said: “The two nations have certain similar challenges and opportunities that we share. Over the decades, we have built some tangible cooperation not only in defence, but also in agriculture and science and technology, as well as education.

“But the cooperation with the ministry of defence has been in the area of training, and capacity building among our military, the intervention has been tangible and we will sustain it over the years.”

“I am sure you are aware that Pakistan not only supports the entire anti-terrorism efforts anywhere in the world but most recently in Nigeria and we have been doing a good job in terms of the ammunition supply and maintenance of aircraft and operational worthiness of platforms.

“I am very much aware of the efforts being put in place for defence cooperation. A high level military delegation has been visiting Pakistan and vice-versa,” he added.

Farook, also stated that “Pakistan is willing to cooperate with the Nigeria military in fighting Boko Haram, and also because of Nigeria’s position in the African Union (AU).”

According to him, Pakistan is not only willing to cooperate in building security but also in the power and education sectors.

In the same vein, Dan-Ali said the cooperation between Nigeria and Pakistan has lasted more than four decades, adding that “a lot of things are common to all of us. We also know that we have very common thing especially with insurgency, you have long experience of fighting insurgency in your country, and we look for assistance in that direction.”

The minister revealed that a security team from Nigeria had visited Pakistan to access how Nigeria can train its personnel in fighting insurgency in the country.

“We need to borrow things like the border monitoring and intelligence gathering that you have, with guards looking after the borders. We share a common determination and we share common problems
“On the defence industry, we are working towards bringing you to come and access and assist us in that direction,” he said.
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#Pakistan's tool of war: #PAF's rolling thunder #JF17 Fighter Jet

Pakistan Air Force’s thunder
JF-17 is a single-engine multi-role fighter,capable of performing interception roles, ground attack and aerial reconnaissance. The fighter was inducted as a replacement for the ageing fleet A-5C, F-7P, Mirage 3 and Mirage 5 aircraft that were due to be replaced.

The initial Block 1 JF-17s were received in 2007, with production of the upgraded Block 2 JF-17s started in 2013. The upgraded models have upgraded avionics, air-to-air refuelling capability, data link, enhanced electronic warfare capability and enhanced load carrying ability.

The JF-17 is powered by a Russian RD-93 afterburning turbofan, which has a top speed for Mach 1.6. The engine is a derivative of the engine that powers the MIG-29 Fulcrum. With the recent improvement in Pakistan-Russia relations, it might be possible to source the engines directly from Russia, rather than through China. In November it was reported that PAF will stick with using the RD-93, and not opt for a Chinese-made engine.

It was also reported recently that PAF is interested in joint engine development with Russia. The air force for years has wanted to expand its technical capabilities in engine development, as they have lacked the capability in this highly-technical field.

Splash one bandit
The JF-17 can be equipped with air-to-air and air-to-ground ordinance, and has a 23 mm GSh-23-2 twin-barrel cannon mounted under the port side air intake.

The aircraft can carry 8,000lbs of ordinance on seven external hardpoints, which is an adequate amount of ordinance for any mission profile. The JF-17 enhances the much needed capability of the air force in beyond visual range (BVR) engagements.

JF-17 mounts both short-range infra-red air to air missiles along with longer ranged radar-guided BVR missiles, an essential capability for a frontline interceptor. Missiles used on the aircraft come from a variety of different nations.

Apart from a capable air-to-air mix, the aircraft can be fitted with laser-guided, satellite-guided and dumb iron bombs. The precision-guided weapons are paired with a targeting pod, mounted on the centreline hardpoint. JF-17's are also capable of carrying anti-runway munitions, specifically the Durandal, which crater a runway, denying its use to enemy aircraft.

The JF-17 Thunder, when equipped for an anti-maritime mission profile, can be equipped with the C-802 anti-ship missile (ASM) and the hypersonic CM-400AKG, often referred to as a ‘carrier-killer’ ASM. It hits the target at Mach 4 or above and its kinetic impact alone is enough to destroy any high-value target.

For Suppression of Enemy Air Defences (SEAD) missions, the Thunder can be equipped with anti-radiation missiles for neutralising the enemy's air defence radars, allowing the PAF to operate in a less restrictive airspace.

Overall, the varying ordinance carried by the JF-17 makes it a capable aircraft for multiple mission profiles.

The JF-17 fighter incorporates a fly-by-wire system, through which the aircraft’s pitch axis is controlled, with leading edge slats/flaps and trailing edge flaps automatically adjusted during maneuvering to increase turning performance. The performance of the jet reportedly is similar to the F-16.

Incorporating a defensive aids system (DAS), sensors such as radar warning receivers (RWR) and missile approach warning (MAW) enable the pilot to have a clear picture of the threats in an operational area. The electronic warfare (EW) suite of the aircraft is mounted in the tail of the JF-17.

It is reported that the pilots can be equipped helmet mounted sights, which gives the pilots a distinct advantage in visual-range air combat, as they can simply look at and guide the missile onto their intended target.
Riaz Haq said…
#Nigeria Air Force buying JF-17 fighter jets and Super Mushshak trainers from #Pakistan. #JF17 …

Nigeria plans to acquire three JF-17 Thunder multirole fighter jets this year from Pakistan for $25 million, which would make the West African country the first export operator for the warplanes. The Nigerian government, led by President Muhammadu Buhari, has also set aside money to purchase 10 PAC Super Mushshak basic trainers and two Mi-35M helicopters, Nigerian newspaper Punch reported Wednesday.

The local newspaper said it obtained the information on the Nigerian government’s procurement plans from a leaked copy of the 2016 budget, which Buhari presented to the National Assembly in December. Buhari reportedly proposed to spend some $326 million for the acquisition of various combat aircraft, equipment, vehicles and ships in the 2016 fiscal year, as the Nigerian military aims to defeat Boko Haram insurgents in the northeast.

Nigerian military officials have apparently been interested in obtaining the JF-17 since the 2014 International Defense Exhibition and Seminar in the commercial capital of Pakistan. During the exhibition, a Pakistani defense official said Nigeria was close to signing a contract for the fighter jets to upgrade its air force. But a deal was not subsequently finalized, according to South Africa’s defenceWeb.

Sri Lanka has reportedly signed a deal with Pakistan for an initial eight JF-17 Thunder jets, as the two countries aim to boost defense cooperation. There has been no official confirmation of the agreement, though it has been widely reported, according to Defense News.

The JF-17 Thunder is a lightweight, single-engine, multirole combat aircraft developed jointly by the Pakistan Aeronautical Complex and China’s state-owned Chengdu Aircraft Corporation. The jet is equipped with a 23mm GSh-23-2 twin-barrel autocannon and can also be armed with both air-to-air and air-to-surface missiles. The JF-17 Thunder is currently only in service in Pakistan, according to UPI.
Riaz Haq said…
#Pakistan successfully tests Ra’ad air launched cruise missile with 350 km range: ISPR

Pakistan on Tuesday conducted a successful flight test of the indigenously developed Air Launched Cruise Missile (ALCM) – Ra’ad – said the military’s media wing in a statement.

The flight test of the cruise missile, which is also known as Hatf VIII, was the seventh since it was first tested in 2007.

It is essentially a flying bomb, generally designed to carry a large conventional or nuclear warhead many hundreds of miles with high accuracy. Modern cruise missiles can travel at supersonic or high subsonic speed.

These guided missiles are self-navigating and fly on a non-ballistic very low altitude trajectory in order to avoid radar detection.

The most common mission for cruise missiles is to attack relatively high value targets such as ships, command bunkers, bridges and dams. The modern guidance system permits precise attacks.

The Inter-Services Public Relations said Ra’ad, with a range of 350km, “enables Pakistan to achieve air delivered strategic standoff capability on land and at sea.” The missile is approximately five metres long and could weigh up to 1,000kg.

Read: Pakistan's tool of war: Why the Mi-35 Hind-E is an excellent choice

Special “terrain hugging low level flight maneuvers enable it to avoid detection and engagement by contemporary air defence systems,” the statement added.

Cruise technology is extremely complex and has been developed by only a few countries in the world.

The president and the prime minister congratulated the scientists and engineers behind the development for their outstanding achievement on the successful flight test of Ra’ad.

Director General Strategic Plans Division, Lt Gen Mazhar Jamil, termed the success a major step towards complementing Pakistan’s deterrence capability.

He said achievement of “this milestone will surely enhance strategic stability and contribute to peace in the region.”
Riaz Haq said…
Commenting on the parade, analyst, author and former Australian defense attache to Islamabad, Brian Cloughley, said there were “no equipment surprises, but the main thing about the parade is that it took place at all, which is a positive indicator concerning the never-ending fight against terrorism.”

The (Pakistan Day) parade (2016) had generally been an annual event, but the deterioration in the security situation led to a seven-year break from 2007 until last year. It has also been notable in the past for the public debut of new equipment.

The JF-17 Thunder made its debut in 2007, and last year the FM-90 SAM system was displayed for the first time. The Z-10 and Shaheen (Falcon) III made their debuts this year.

The Z-10 has been in the country undergoing an operational evaluation since last year. Official details of this have not been revealed, but what unofficial information is available indicates the army is impressed with the machine.

Pakistan has a requirement to replace the AH-1F Cobra helicopter gunship currently operated by the 31st, 33rd, and 35th Army Aviation Combat Squadrons, and is awaiting delivery of the AH-1Z, but is also pursuing up to 20 MI-35 Hind gunships from Russia.

The Hind appears to have been acquired to fulfill the requirement for an armed and armored helicopter also capable of carrying troops.

It was announced today that the Z-10 was in service with the 35th "Mustangs" Squadron of the Army Aviation Corps, which would paradoxically see Pakistan operating three types of helicopter gunships.

A spokesperson for the Ministry of Defence Production, which also handles procurement, declined to provide confirmation of the purchase of the Z-10 and how many were to be obtained.

In spite of the other gunship purchases, Cloughley believes there is still room for the Z-10.

“It seems that Pakistan has firmed on 15 AH-1Zs and will probably get 20 Hinds. So there is certainly room for the Z-10, which does seem to be in squadron service,” he said. “It's much cheaper than the [AH-1Z] Viper, of course, and the Hind, though cost-effective, is a big machine.”

Though it would seem dated over today’s battlefield, members of the Army Aviation Corps have acknowledged it is the best counterinsurgency gunship available. Cloughley says the Hind also has one other clear advantage.

“The main thing with the Hind is economy in maintenance — it's probably the best in the world from that aspect for its type,” he said.

Nevertheless, he believes the Z-10 will be the mainstay of Pakistan’s gunship capability. “My assessment is that the Z-10 will be acquired in larger numbers.”

There has been speculation regarding the presence of the Chinese Harbin WZ-19 armed scout in Pakistan, but the spokesperson for the Ministry of Defence Production also declined to comment on this.

Cloughley says the presence of the medium range Shaheen III amounts to some predictable signaling that was aimed squarely at India, Pakistan’s main security threat.

The solid-fueled, multi-stage Shaheen III was tested for the first time in March 2015 and is Pakistan’s longest range missile with a stated delivery limit of 2,750 kilometers, though this is believed by many analysts to be an understatement.

Nevertheless, the range allows it to cover all parts of Indian territory with a worthwhile payload, even the Indian strategic military facilities in the Andaman and Nicobar island chain in the Bay of Bengal/Andaman Sea.

Mansoor Ahmed, a Stanton nuclear security junior faculty fellow at the Harvard Kennedy School's Belfer Center and expert on Pakistan's nuclear deterrent and delivery systems, said that “the Shaheen III is in service, but more user trials or batch/training tests might take place as is the usual practice with other similar missile systems.”
Riaz Haq said…
#Nigeria to buy 10 Super Mushshak trainer aircraft from #Pakistan. Other customers: #Saudi #Qatar #Oman #Iran #RSA

ISLAMABAD: Pakistan on Friday signed an agreement for the sale of 10 Super Mushshak aircraft to the Nigerian Air Force (NAF), the Pakistan Air Force (PAF) announced here on Friday.

“The contract signing ceremony was held at Abuja (Nigeria) where Air Vice Marshal Iya Ahmed Abdullahi and Air Marshal Arshad Malik, Chairman of the Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC), signed the contract,” PAF spokesman Air Commodore Syed Mohammad Ali said.

The contract includes operational training and technical support and assistance to the NAF. The Pakistan Air Force would completely establish this facility in the shortest possible time, he said.

The contract will not only open new vistas for export of aviation equipment to foreign countries but also help generate revenue for the country.

The aircraft is already in service with Saudi Arabia, Oman, Iran and South Africa.

The deal strengthens PAC’s status as a world class aviation industry producing the supersonic JF-17 Thunder and Super Mushshak trainer aircraft.

Riaz Haq said…
#Nuclear-armed #Pakistan looks ramp up #defense exports in #aviation. #JF17 #SuperMushshak … via @bpolitics

Nuclear-armed Pakistan is seeking to ramp up defense exports amid simmering regional tensions and a surge in the global arms trade.

Pakistan expects to increase defense exports more than 10-fold to $1 billion within the next two years, targeting sales to countries such as Egypt, Turkey and Nigeria. Azerbaijan on Wednesday agreed to buy arms from Pakistan.

The target is “very ambitious” and focused on selling aircraft, Defence Production Minister Rana Tanveer Hussain said in an interview in Karachi. Pakistan’s sales drive comes amid a rising trade deficit and heightened tensions with India, its larger neighbor. Pakistan exported about $63 million of arms between 2014 and 2016, Muhammad Zakir Jafri, the joint secretary at the Ministry of Defence Production, said in a separate phone interview.

A late entry in a market dominated by the U.S., Russia and China, Pakistan’s aspirations are reliant on private sector buy in to an industry that has, so far, been tightly held by military-run factories. It already manufactures the Super Mushshak training aircraft as well as the JF-17 Thunder fighter jet, but will need to deepen ties with countries such as Turkey and Saudi Arabia to significantly expand its reach.

Closely-Guarded Secret

Details on defense exports are closely guarded and Pakistan’s statistics bureau doesn’t include the data when measuring the nation’s trade, which showed a deficit of $2.96 billion in January, widening 75 percent from a year earlier.

More than 20 major public and over 100 private sector firms are engaged in manufacturing defense-related products in Pakistan, according to the website of Defence Export Promotion Organisation.

While major defense products are manufactured by the armed forces-run Pakistan Ordinance Factories, Pakistan Aeronautical Complex, Heavy Industries Taxila, National Radio Telecommunication Corporation and Karachi Shipyard & Engineering Works, the private sector firms produce small supportive equipment only. None of them, according to DEPO website, are manufacturing large items like aircraft.

The introduction of regulatory and taxation incentives would lift the economy by encouraging the private sector to invest in defense manufacturing, said Khurram Schehzad, chief commercial officer at JS Global Capital Ltd.

“Public Private Partnership can be a workable option in increasing the private sector’s capacity to support the government’s export targets,” Schehzad said. “All this requires is a much stronger economic muscle, that is, continuously improving fiscals driven by higher direct income taxes and a deep cut on non-productive spending.”

In the past, Pakistan had focused on exporting small low-value items, but it had upgraded its defense manufacturing to high-value products like such as Al-Khalid tanks and fighter jets, said Muzzammil Aslam, chief executive officer of Invest & Finance Securities Ltd. in Karachi.

“This fetches you a lot of money and really brightens Pakistan’s prospects as a defense exporter.” Even so, analysts like Aslam are doubtful the country can achieve the government’s export target in two years. “I don’t think $1 billion is feasible.”
Riaz Haq said…
#Indian Army Vice Chief says #Pakistan's #defense #industrial base better than #India's. #military

Lt. Gen. Sarath Chand, Vice Chief of Army Staff (VCOAS), said the ordnance factories have not been able to keep pace with changing technology while "there is no competition whatsoever" and it is "an unsuccessful method of supporting our defence requirements".

A top Army general on Tuesday said Pakistan has a better military industrial base and exports more defence equipment than India, as he came down heavily on ordnance factories which manufacture weapons for the forces. Lt. Gen. Sarath Chand, Vice Chief of Army Staff (VCOAS), said the ordnance factories have not been able to keep pace with changing technology while “there is no competition whatsoever” and it is “an unsuccessful method of supporting our defence requirements”.
“I would even go to the extent of saying that Pakistan probably has a better industrial base, as far as defence production is concerned, than our country. In fact they export defence equipment abroad, definitely more than what we are doing,” he said.
He wondered whether the functioning of ordnance factories is because of the assured orders they have or the lack of accountability. “There is little or no research and development. They do not even have the capability of absorbing the industry through transfer of technology, and in some cases they have even failed to assemble products that have been imported from abroad,” Lt. Gen. Chand said.
“It is very hard to see ordnance factories changing in the present state. Overall it has become an unsuccessful method of supporting our defence requirements,” he said. He was speaking at the inaugural session of AMICON 2017, a two-day conference organised by the Army and the CII.

He noted that having indigenous industrial capability is very crucial for the country. He further cautioned that in an event of a war, one has to look abroad for its sustenance. “And very often, friends have let us down whenever the chips have been down,” Lt. Gen. Chand observed.
He said the ‘Make in India’ programme, the Defence Procurement Policy 2016, the strategic partnership model, and the creation of the Army Design Bureau (ADB), are major steps taken by the government for fast-tracking indigenisation in the sector.
Riaz Haq said…
Pakistan Tests An Indigenously Developed Anti-Ship Cruise Missile
Pakistan introduces the Harbah, a cruise missile with anti-ship and land-attack roles.

By Ankit Panda
January 08, 2018

Last week, the Pakistani Navy carried out the first-ever test launch of its Harbah anti-ship and land-attack cruise missile (LACM/ASCM). The test was carried out in the North Arabian Sea on January 3, according to a press release from Pakistan’s Inter-Services Public Relations (ISPR).

“The successful live weapon firing has once again demonstrated the credible fire power of Pakistan Navy and the impeccable level of indigenization in high tech weaponry achieved by Pakistan’s defence industry,” ISPR noted in a statement. “The missile accurately hit its target signifying the impressive capabilities of Harbah Naval Weapon System.”

The Harbah is thought to be derived from Pakistan’s Babur family of cruise missiles. Pakistan has tested multiple Babur variants, beginning with the ground-launched Babur-I to the submarine-launched Babur-III, which was first tested last January. Though ISPR made no comment on the missile’s payload capabilities, its origin in the Babur family would suggest that it could be converted for both conventional and nuclear payload delivery.

According to Pakistani media reports, Pakistan’s Ministry of Defense Production had planned to develop a missile system for the PNS Himmat by October 2018. According to the Ministry’s 2014-2015 yearbook, the Directorate General of Munitions Production (DGMP) had been tasked with “the indigenous (sic) developing of ship-borne system with Land Attack Missile [LACM] and Anti ship Missile” by that date.

The missile was launched from an Azmat-class fast attack craft, PNS Himmat. PNS Himmat was commissioned into the Pakistan Navy last summer after extensive sea trials. Along with PNS Himmat, PNS Azmat and PNS Deshat are likely to also operate the Harbah ASCM once the system is declared operational.

Pakistan’s test-firing of the Harbah came shortly after U.S. President Donald Trump threatened to end U.S. military aid to the country in a tweet. While U.S. aid does not go toward Pakistan’s indigenous strategic weapons research and development, the ISPR statement noted that Pakistan’s chief of naval staff, Admiral Zafar Mahmood Abbasi, said that Pakistan needed to “reduce reliance on foreign countries” and “emphasized the need to capitalize on indigenous defense capabilities.”
Riaz Haq said…
#Pakistan outlines 5th gen fighter #aircraft industrial aims. "Such large-scale (Project Azm) requires synergetic efforts from a number of #industrial (public and private) and #academic organizations to fulfill the enormous task." #jf17thunder |Jane's 360

The Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC) has outlined ambitious plans to support its development of a fifth-generation fighter aircraft (FGFA) - otherwise known in Pakistan as Project AZM.

The PAC enterprise, which is owned and run by the Pakistan Air Force (PAF), has established a new office - the Aviation Research, Indigenization & Development (AvRID) unit - to lead the FGFA programme, it confirmed.

The development programme is supported through Pakistan's development of a new aerospace complex - named 'Aviation City' - that was launched in 2017 to support Project AZM and other national military aerospace requirements.

"The office of DG [Director General] AvRID has been established to transform into reality the [PAF's] air staff vision… with the long-term goal of developing our own fifth generation fighter aircraft (FGFA)," PAC said on its website.

"[The] development of [the] FGFA would be a major national programme that would entail a massive amount of work, not all of which may possibly be carried out within PAC or even within Pakistan.

"Such large-scale development requires synergetic efforts from a number of industrial (public and private) and academic organisations to fulfill the enormous task," it added.

In order to "manage an engineering development programme of this magnitude", effective technical, engineering, and project management processes need to be established, PAC said.

PAC also outlined several specialist project teams that it will establish in collaboration with other national agencies as part of the Aviation City initiative.

These include an engineering management and support office, an Aviation Design Institute, a Mission Electronics Design Institute, an Aero Structures Design Institute, an Advanced Technologies Centre, and a Flight Test Centre.

PAC states that AvRID will collaborate with and leverage the capabilities of these various Aviation City agencies in undertaking Project AZM. "This [will] put together components of industry and academia to build a high-end research centre to enhance indigenisation capability.
Riaz Haq said…
#Pakistan to corporatize State #Defense Enterprise Heavy Industries #Taxila. The move to corporatize HIT will enable the enterprise to more easily enter joint ventures (JVs) with national and foreign firms.| Jane's 360

Pakistan's Senate passed legislation in late August to support the transformation of state defence enterprise Heavy Industries Taxila (HIT) into a corporate entity. The move is in line with Pakistan's efforts to spur capability developments in its national defence industry.

The legislation - the Heavy Industries Taxila Board (Amendment) Bill 2019 - will result in HIT, a specialist in military land systems, becoming a limited company. The bill was approved earlier this year by Pakistan's National Assembly and was referred to the Senate for consideration in May.

In approving the bill, the Senate's Standing Committee on Defence Production said in a report that the move to corporatise HIT will enable the enterprise to more easily enter joint ventures (JVs) with national and foreign firms.

The committee said these JVs would be in commercial sectors - including the production of automobiles, trucks, and wagons - and that resulting revenues, investments, and technologies would benefit HIT's defence production activities. However, the committee also warned that such commercial activities should not be to the detriment of defence production.

According to the committee, other objectives of the move to corporatise HIT include enabling the enterprise to earn revenues to subsidise Pakistan's defence budget; support national efforts to "move incrementally towards self-sustenance" in the defence sector; support private-sector defence industrial expansion in Pakistan; and "help bring in the latest technologies" into the country to benefit defence.

HIT is one of Pakistan's most important defence enterprises. The organisation specialises in upgrades and manufacturing a range of military vehicles including main battle tanks (MBTs), armoured personnel carriers, and artillery, as well as military vehicle engines and related components and associated equipment.

Its most important programmes include the production of Al-Khalid-I MBTs and the development of Al-Khalid-II MBTs, both for the Pakistan Army.
Riaz Haq said…
#Pakistan's Darra Adam Khel #tribal craftsmen have created an almost impeccable clone of the Glock 19 Gen 4 #handgun, with an additional aesthetic flourish to showcase the wider range of options they can provide compared to Glock themselves. #Glock #guns

Early in 2019, photos of a Glock with a clear frame began to circulate on the Internet. The design is certainly eye-catching, providing a clear view into the magazine and internal workings of the gun. Bearing Glock trademarks on the slide and frame matching a Glock 19 Gen 4, some people speculated that it was a Glock OEM frame built on a limited custom run for demonstrations. Some said it was an official version of a clear frame produced by one maker of custom Glock frames, Lone Wolf Distributors, in 2013. But many people still wanted to know: who made the original?

Thankfully, a video by Khyber Armory in May 2019 revealed that the clear Glocks were, unsurprisingly, made in Pakistan’s famous Khyber Pass region—making them a very good clone, not an original. This allows for the frames to be produced with full Glock trademarks, as patent law in Pakistan probably does not allow even Glock’s notoriously strict patent lawyers to prosecute the manufacturers of the clear-framed Glock-clones.

The frames themselves are said to be made in China or in an injection-molding facility in Lahore, Pakistan, while the slides are CNC milled on site. Additional options such as custom stippling, additional serrations, etc. can be added upon customer request.

But despite the striking looks, the clear-framed Glock is probably not very suitable for actual use. In the video, Khyber Armory states that hundreds of rounds have been fired through the clear framed Glock-clone, but service Glocks usually fire thousands of rounds over their lifetime.

Transparent polymer has significant trade-offs vs. their nontransparent counterparts. UV resistance, problems at higher temperatures, and a weakness to DEET and other chemicals are all issues that affect transparent polymers. Magpul declined to make a fully transparent version of their popular PMAG for these reasons. While the physical demands for a magazine and a pistol frame are different, it’s unlikely that the clear Glock frame clones are up to the durability standards of the original due to their material.

The ability to see the magazine in the grip of the gun, while nice on paper, doesn’t provide many advantages over a stock Glock. Regular Glock magazines have witness holes at the rear of the magazine that provide an accurate count of how many rounds are remaining, while looking at the rounds at the side of the pistol through the frame would be more akin to a guess.

That’s not to belittle the accomplishment of the gunsmiths in Darra, Pakistan. They have created an almost impeccable clone of the Glock 19 Gen 4, with an additional aesthetic flourish to showcase the wider range of options they can provide compared to Glock themselves. With modern CNC machinery, “Khyber Pass” clones have become almost indistinguishable from the originals. The transparent Glock shown in the video is the same down to the metal bar with the frame’s serial number embedded in the slide’s dust cover.
Riaz Haq said…

Sales to the United States of America continued. Encrypted APCO
radios were also delivered to the Pakistan Armed Forces. The
deliveries under the Technology Transfer Contract signed with the
Pakistan National Radio Telecommunications (NRTC) Company
continued gaining pace. ASELSAN’s communication solutions in
Saudi Arabia has expanded together with other export efforts of
ASELSAN APCO radio solutions.

The RWR/GPS antenna and SDU procurement contract was
signed with the Hensoldt Company, which won the tender for
the periscope modernization of the AGOSTA90E submarines in
Pakistan Navy’s inventory. The units to be produced for the two
platforms under the contract will be exported to Germany for
the end user, Pakistan

Naval Communication Systems
Work continued on the design, material
supply, manufacturing and testing activities
for the Integrated Communication Systems
of Underwater Rescue Mother Ship
(MOSHIP), Rescue and Towing Ships
(RATSHIP), Landing Ship Tank (LST),
MİLGEM 3-4, Landing Helicopter Dock
(LHD), Logistic Support Vessel (LSV),
Pakistan Offshore Supply Vessel (POSV),
Testing and Training Ship (TTS) and New
Type Submarine (NTS).

Mass manufacturing activities in the production line, prepared
within the scope of local manufacturing activities through
license transfer, and for which capacity acceptance work was
completed, is continuing in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Local manufacturing activities related to the software based
VHF/UHF radio contract in Pakistan are ongoing. Deliveries
were realized pertaining to the supply contracts for the Digital
Intercommunication Systems to be used in the VHF/UHF radio
and tactical vehicles for the Ukrainian Armed Forces. The third
contract was signed for the supply of the products within the
same scope.

ASELSAN provides the weapon (Stabilized Gun System - STOP)
and communication switching system within the scope of the
Offshore Supply Vessel Project aimed at the needs of the Pakistan
Naval Forces. Installation, commissioning and harbor acceptance
test activities were completed.


National Radio Telecommunication Corporation the high tech industry engaged in manufacturing of telecommunication equipment in Pakistan. NRTC is the pioneer in Telecommunication Equipment in Pakistan and leader in the field of communication for the last three decades. NRTC is producing high quality ruggedized products to be used in harsh environment such as defense services, Para / Auxiliary security services. Commercial products and versions for use by civil Telecommunications operators and civil organizations / establishments since 1966.
Riaz Haq said…
#Pakistan Seen Deploying #UGV Unmanned Ground Vehicles On #Indian Border. Can be equipped with RPG-26 rocket launcher & 7.62 mm general purpose machine gun which can reach a speed of 25 km per hour and can be directed up to 16 km range with LOS technology

Pakistan Army has reportedly deployed "many" unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) near the border close to India.

The UGVs are similar to Russian-made Platform-Ms, according to some media reports.

The Platform-M remotely controlled robot armed with grenade launchers and Kalashnikov rifles. The RPG-26 rocket launcher and 7.62 mm general purpose machine gun can be integrated on the vehicle, which can reach a speed of 25 km per hour and can be directed up to 16 km range with LOS (line of sight) technology.

The UGV can be used for gathering intelligence, discovering and destroying fixed and mobile targets, firepower support, patrol and field protection missions.

It is equipped with optical-electronic and radio reconnaissance locators, which enable the Russian robot to perform combat tasks during the night without unmasking itself. Platform-M is a universal platform that can be supplies with a variety of defensive chassis and weaponry.

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