Pakistan Nuclear Power Generation Soared 66% in 2021

Nuclear power plants in Pakistan generated 15,540 GWH of electricity in 2021, a jump of 66% over 2020. Overall, Pakistan's power plants produced 136,572 GWH of power, an increase of 10.6% over 2020, indicating robust economic recovery amid the COVID19 pandemic. 

Pakistan Electric Power Generation. Source: Arif Habib


Hydroelectric dams contributed 37,689 GWH of electricity or 27.6% of the total power generated, making hydropower the biggest contributor to power generated in the country. It is followed by coal (20%), LNG (19%) and nuclear (11.4%). 


Cost Per Unit of Electricity in Pakistan. Source: Arif Habib

Nuclear offers the lowest cost of fuel for electricity (one rupee per KWH) while furnace oil is the most expensive (Rs. 22.2 per KWH). 

Pakistan Electric Power Generation Fuel MiX. Source: Arif Habib

Construction of 1,100 MW nuclear power reactor K2 unit in Karachi was completed by China National Nuclear Corporation in 2019, according to media reports. Fuel is being loaded in a similar reactor unit K3 which will add another 1,100 MW of nuclear power to the grid in 2022. Chinese Hualong One reactors being installed in Pakistan are based on improved Westinghouse AP1000 design which is far safer than Chernobyl and Fukushima plants.  

The biggest and most important source of low-carbon energy in Pakistan is its hydroelectric power plants, followed by nuclear power. Pakistan ranked third in the world by adding nearly 2,500 MW of hydropower in 2018, according to Hydropower Status Report 2019.  China added the most capacity with the installation of 8,540 megawatts, followed by Brazil (3,866 MW), Pakistan (2,487 MW), Turkey (1,085 MW), Angola (668 MW), Tajikistan (605 MW), Ecuador (556 MW), India (535 MW), Norway (419 MW) and Canada (401 MW).

New Installed Hydroelectric Power Capacity in 2018. Source: Hydroworld.com


Hydropower now makes up about 28% of the total installed capacity of 33,836 MW as of February, 2019.   WAPDA reports contributing 25.63 billion units of hydroelectricity to the national grid during the year, “despite the fact that water flows in 2018 remained historically low.” This contribution “greatly helped the country in meeting electricity needs and lowering the electricity tariff for the consumers.”

Pakistan's Current Account Balance vs International Oil Prices. Source: Arif Habib


Recent history shows that Pakistan's current account deficits vary with international oil prices.  Pakistan's trade deficits balloon with rising imported energy prices. One of the keys to managing external account balances lies in reducing the country's dependence on foreign oil and gas. 


Pakistan Power Generation Fuel Mix. Source: Third Pole

It is true that Pakistan has relied on imported fossil fuels to generate electricity. The cost of these expensive imported fuels like furnace oil mainly used by independent power producers (IPPs) has been and continues to be a major contributor to the "exaggerated external demand driven by its rentier economy" referred to by Atif Mian in a recent tweet. However, Pakistan has recently been adding hydronuclear and indigenous coal-fired power plants to gradually reduce dependence on imported fossil fuels. 

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Comments

Riaz Haq said…
Nuclear Power in the World Today(Updated January 2022)

The first commercial nuclear power stations started operation in the 1950s.
Nuclear energy now provides about 10% of the world's electricity from about 440 power reactors.
Nuclear is the world's second largest source of low-carbon power (28% of the total in 2019).
Over 50 countries utilize nuclear energy in about 220 research reactors. In addition to research, these reactors are used for the production of medical and industrial isotopes, as well as for training.


Asia

Bangladesh started construction on the first of two planned Russian VVER-1200 reactors in 2017. Construction on the second started in 2018. It plans to have the first unit in operation by 2023. The country currently produces virtually all of its electricity from fossil fuels.China has 53 operable nuclear reactors, with a combined net capacity of 50.8 GWe. In 2020, nuclear generated 4.9% of the country's electricity.The country continues to dominate the market for new nuclear build. At the start of 2022, 18 of the 57 reactors under construction globally were in China. In 2018 China became the first country to commission two new designs – the AP1000 and the EPR. China is commencing export marketing of the Hualong One, a largely indigenous reactor design.The strong impetus for developing new nuclear power in China comes from the need to improve urban air quality and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The government's stated long-term target, as outlined in its Energy Development Strategy Action Plan 2014-2020 is for 58 GWe capacity by 2020, with 30 GWe more under construction.India has 23 operable nuclear reactors, with a combined net capacity of 6.9 GWe. In 2020, nuclear generated 3.3% of the country's electricity.The Indian government is committed to growing its nuclear power capacity as part of its massive infrastructure development programme. The government in 2010 set an ambitious target to have 14.6 GWe nuclear capacity online by 2024. At the start of 2020 seven reactors were under construction in India, with a combined capacity of 5.3 GWe.Japan has 33 operable nuclear reactors, with a combined net capacity of 31.7 GWe. As of June 2021, 10 reactors had been brought back online, with a further 15 in the process of restart approval, following the Fukushima accident in 2011. In the past, 30% of the country's electricity has come from nuclear; in 2020, the figure was just 5.1%.South Korea has 24 operable nuclear reactors, with a combined net capacity of 23.2 GWe. In 2020, nuclear generated 29.6% of the country's electricity.South Korea has four new reactors under construction domestically as well as four in the United Arab Emirates. It plans for two more, after which energy policy is uncertain. It is also involved in intense research on future reactor designs.Pakistan has five operable nuclear reactors, with a combined net capacity of 2.2 GWe. In 2020, nuclear generated 7.1% of the country's electricity. Pakistan has one Chinese Hualong One unit under construction.

https://world-nuclear.org/information-library/current-and-future-generation/nuclear-power-in-the-world-today.aspx
Riaz Haq said…
136,000 GWH divided by 220 million equals 618 KWH per person per year

For a household of 6 persons it is 3,700 KWH per year

Riaz Haq said…
Pakistan to burn more domestic coal despite climate pledge
Islamabad expands use of lignite to ease burden of expensive imported fuel

https://asia.nikkei.com/Spotlight/Environment/Climate-Change/Pakistan-to-burn-more-domestic-coal-despite-climate-pledge

Work on the third phase of the Thar Coal Block II mine expansion is set to begin this year at an estimated cost of $93 million, according to the Sindh Engro Coal Mining Company (SECMC), a public-private enterprise operating the mine since 2019 in the southeastern district of Tharparkar. The second phase of expansion is underway with the help of China Machinery Engineering Corp. and Chinese bank loans, in addition to local financing. The series of expansions will scale up the annual production of lignite from 3.8 million tons to 12.2 million tons by 2023.

The output from the second phase of expansion will feed two 330 MW coal-fired power plants being built under the $50 billion China Pakistan Economic Corridor projects, part of Chinese President Xi Jinping's flagship Belt and Road Initiative. The power plants are expected to come on line this year.

Lignite is brown coal with low calorific value due to high moisture and low carbon content.

The expansion of the Thar coalfields is aimed at curbing coal imports to ease a staggering current-account deficit made worse by soaring international commodity prices and shipping costs. Pakistan's current-account deficit ballooned to an unprecedented $9.09 billion between July and December last year, as imports continued to outstrip exports during the post-COVID economic recovery. Pakistan had to seek a $3 billion loan and a deferred payment facility on the import of petroleum products from Saudi Arabia last year to stabilize forex reserves.

In recent years, high volatility in international oil prices, soaring LNG prices and dwindling local gas reserves have spurred public-private spending, particularly Chinese investment, in Pakistan's coal power sector. Until now, four coal-fired power plants with 4.62 GW of total installed capacity have joined the grid, while another three plants with an aggregate capacity of 1.98 GW are expected to come online over the next two years -- all under CPEC. In addition, growing demand from cement factories banking on a global construction boom has tripled coal consumption over the last five years to 21.5 million tons per annum.

Consequently, the share of coal in Pakistan's import bill for the year ended June 2021 shot to 24% from over 2% in previous years, according to data from the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics. Currently, only the power plant at Thar Coal Block II is running on indigenous coal.

A spike in coal power generation is in line with global trends, where countries including China, the U.S. and India have turned to coal to meet heightened demand following the lifting of COVID-19 restrictions.

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Authorities contend that the expansion of Thar Coal Block II will reduce the price of indigenous coal from $60 to $27 per ton -- making it the country's cheapest power source and leading to annual savings of $420 million. Pakistan is currently importing coal at around $200 per ton.


"We are compelled to use this cheap source of energy because we cannot keep using dollars to run power plants running on expensive furnace oil and RLNG (re-gasified liquefied natural gas)," Sindh Provincial Energy Minister Imtiaz Shaikh told Nikkei Asia. "We would like to mix 20% Thar coal [in power plants running] with imported coal. Then we will move towards converting coal to liquid and coal to gas."

The cost of operating thermal plants has become punishing due to expensive fuel and the cost of diverting scarce freshwater, which leads to underutilization of the plants, said Omar Cheema, director of London-based renewable energy consultancy Vivantive.
Riaz Haq said…
Arif Habib Limited
@ArifHabibLtd
Power Generation up by 10.6% YoY in CY21

Dec’21: 8,828 GWh, +12.0% YoY
CY21: 136,572 GWh, +10.6% YoY

Full Report

https://arifhabib.com/r/PowerGenDec-21.pdf

https://twitter.com/ArifHabibLtd/status/1485478323979436038?s=20
Riaz Haq said…
CPEC Moving Forward Despite Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic: Asim Iftikhar

https://www.newsweekpakistan.com/cpec-moving-forward-despite-impact-of-covid-19-pandemic-asim-iftikhar/

Clarifying that 27 projects conceived under CPEC were at various stages of preparation and implementation, he said its ambit had been expanded to include agriculture, science and technology and IT cooperation. “Work on major infrastructure projects has [also] continued apace and a number of new mega projects have been endorsed by the JCC [Joint Cooperation Committee] of CPEC,” he said. “These include the Azad Pattan and Kohala hydropower projects, which will help address Pakistan’s food security while also ensuring access to green and cost-competitive energy for our industrial growth,” he added.

A day earlier, the Chinese foreign ministry had likewise dismissed reports of slowdown as “disinformation.”

Concerns about progress on CPEC have made headlines following the Foreign Office’s announcement that Prime Minister Imran Khan is due to visit Beijing from Feb. 3-5 to attend the launching ceremony of the Winter Olympics. According to the Foreign Office, the prime minister is also set to to meet Chinese leaders during his visit, with CPEC expected to top the agenda of discussions.

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WAPDA chairman reviews progress on Dasu project

https://dailytimes.com.pk/866982/wapda-chairman-reviews-progress-on-dasu-project/

WAPDA Chairman said that Dasu Hydropower Project is of immense importance for a quantum increase in green and low-cost hydel electricity in the National Grid, therefore the project authorities must ensure achieving major construction milestones in accordance with the timelines set for the purpose. He directed the management to double their efforts for completion of the project in accordance with the stipulated time and construction standards.

Earlier, the Chairman was briefed about the progress on the project. It was apprised that the construction work is underway simultaneously on as many as eight sites which include diversion tunnels, underground powerhouse, flushing and traffic tunnel, Relocation of Karakoram Highway, right bank access roads, 132 KV transmission line, WAPDA colony and offices.

It is worth mentioning that the 4320 MW-Dasu Hydropower Project is being implemented in two stages. At present, WAPDA is working on 2160 MW-Stage-I, which will provide 12 billion green and low-cost electricity to the National Grid annually while the Stage-II will also contribute another 9 billion units to the system per annum.
Riaz Haq said…
#Pakistan begins extracting #coal from a 2nd major #mine in #Thar, #Sindh. Block 1 mine has lignite coal deposits of over 3 billion tons (5 billions barrels of crude oil) with an annual output of 7.8 million tons to generate 1320 MW #electricity. #energy https://www.dawn.com/news/1672580


Sino-Sindh Resources Ltd (SSRL) said on Monday it successfully extracted the first shovel of lignite coal at Block 1 of the Thar coalfields near Islamkot Town of Tharparkar, Sindh.

Block 1 boasts lignite coal deposits of over three billion tonnes (equivalent to over 5bn barrels of crude oil) with an annual output of 7.8 million tonnes.

SSRL, whose majority shareholder is Shanghai Electric Group, was granted a mining lease on May 24, 2012, and the project was included in the Joint Energy Working Group by the governments of Pakistan and China.

As soon as the two governments officially announced the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, the Thar coal project was included in it as an early-harvest project.

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After back-to-back meetings between SSRL and the Energy Department of the government of Sindh, the first excavation took place on Jan 23, 2019, for the development of the largest open-pit coal mine in Block 1.

According to the Thar Coal Energy Board, SSRL and Shanghai Electric Group have already signed a coal supply agreement for power generation through two mine-mouth power plants of 660 megawatt each.

Financial close of the project was achieved on Dec 31, 2019. Soon after the first excavation, the SSRL management started importing mining equipment from China and by July 2020 all the required equipment was at the project site.

Speaking to Dawn, Ministry of Energy spokesperson Muzzammil Aslam said both majority (Shanghai Electric Group) and minority (SSRL) investors in Block 1 are Chinese. Unlike Block 2 where the Sindh government owns a stake of 54.7 per cent, Block I has no direct shareholding by the provincial government, he said.

“Shanghai Electric’s power plant will achieve financial close within this year. It’s a big development because the 1,320MW plant will run on indigenous fuel and produce affordable electricity,” Mr Aslam added.

SSRL officials said the development of the indigenous resource base at Thar will help Pakistan achieve its long-cherished goal of energy security and economic sovereignty.
Riaz Haq said…
Arif Habib Limited
@ArifHabibLtd
Oil marketing industry sales surged by 18.9% YoY during Jan’22 to 1.80mn tons (7MFY22: 12.91mn tons, +14.5% YoY).

https://twitter.com/ArifHabibLtd/status/1488511560565854222?s=20&t=ifmoAqCf2BMw2onQ92fGFg

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https://tribune.com.pk/story/2341510/oil-sales-surge-20-to-18m-tons-in-january-2022

KARACHI:
The demand for petroleum oil products remained robust despite the uptrend in prices, as wheat harvesting, power generation through oil-fired plants and building of domestic reserves in anticipation of a further hike in international prices generated strong demand in January.

Besides, healthy industrial activities and growing car numbers on roads also contributed to the rising momentum in sales of petroleum products. Overall oil sales surged almost 20% to 1.8 million tons in January 2022 compared to 1.51 million tons in the previous month of December 2021, Arif Habib Limited (AHL) reported on Tuesday. “(High-speed) diesel had a major increase in demand among petroleum products in the wake of wheat harvesting in the country,” AHL Head of Research Tahir Abbas said while talking to The Express Tribune.

Secondly, three major power plants, located in Punjab, ran on diesel due to the widening gas shortfall during winter months. Besides, some other plants ran on furnace oil and its demand picked up as well. Thirdly, oil marketing companies (OMCs) and their dealers (petrol pumps) built inventories during the month in anticipation of a hike in prices of petroleum products in the global as well as domestic markets.

The building of reserves was aimed at making additional profits on likely increase in prices in the domestic market with effect from February 1, 2022. The government, however, decided to keep oil prices unchanged, which “had earlier been expected to increase by Rs12-15 per litre,” he said. The demand for petrol also remained robust in the backdrop of a significant growth in sales of cars and SUVs.

Car sales slowed down, but still remained significant despite the fact that the government took measures to cut imports of luxury cars and restricted bank financing for cars to control the current account deficit (CAD). Sales of diesel increased 20% to 0.74 million tons in January compared to 0.62 million tons in December.

Sales of petrol rose 6.2% to 0.74 million tons in the month under review compared to 0.70 million tons in the previous month. Sales of furnace oil surged 103% to 0.26 million tons in January compared to 0.13 million tons in December 2021. Cumulatively, in the first seven months (July-January) of the current fiscal year 2021- 22, oil sales increased 14.5% to 12.91 million tons compared to 11.27 million tons in the same period of previous year. The growth in demand is mostly seasonal given that wheat harvesting takes place
Riaz Haq said…
A British investor group CDC & Gul Ahmed Metro (GAM) group JV to add 500MW of #renewable power in #Pakistan with significant minority stake in Metro #Wind Power. CDC and GAM are also co-investors in Zephyr Power Limited, an operating 50MW #windfarm. https://www.cdcgroup.com/en/news-insight/news/were-partnering-with-gul-ahmed-metro-group-to-scale-renewable-power-in-pakistan/

The Metro-BII Renewables joint venture aims to add 500 megawatts (MW) low-cost renewable power to Pakistan in the medium term, increasing jobs and expanding economic opportunities
The joint venture will mitigate Pakistan’s carbon emissions, cutting 728,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide per year for the planet
Investment aligns with CDC’s ambition to invest over £3 billion of climate finance over the next five years
CDC Group (soon to become British International Investment – BII) and Gul Ahmed Metro Group (GAM), are today announcing their partnership to form the Metro-BII Renewables joint venture. The new joint venture builds on the existing partnership between the UK’s development finance institution and GAM, a Pakistani family-owned business with expertise in Pakistan’s power sector, and it will aim to develop and operate up to 500MW of renewable energy assets in Pakistan.

Metro-BII Renewables aims to add up to 500 Megawatts (MW) of primarily greenfield low-cost renewable power to Pakistan’s grid over the medium term, and has a current generation capacity of 110MW. The JV will boost clean power generation, providing electricity to over 850, 000 consumers in Pakistan. Moreover, up to 17,000 jobs will be supported across the country, as a result of the increased power capacity. In addition, Metro-BII Renewables will help the country decarbonise as the joint venture’s target capacity size will help avoid an estimated 728, 000 tonnes of carbon dioxide per year, for the planet.

This new joint venture will strengthen collaboration between CDC, which will be renamed British International Investment (BII) in April, and GAM and foster knowledge sharing from both firms’ experience within the local and regional power sector.

Under the terms of the joint venture, CDC will acquire a significant minority stake in Metro Wind Power Limited (MWPL), an under-construction 60MW windfarm project, developed by GAM, the acquisition remains subject to lender and regulatory approval. CDC and GAM are also co-investors in Zephyr Power Limited, an operating 50MW windfarm.

CDC’s capital will provide much-needed equity finance that will support the development of a clean energy platform that is bespoke to Pakistan’s needs, helping to scale power capacity in the country. The deepened partnership will help accelerate greater investments into the renewable power sector in Pakistan. This partnership further underlines CDC’s focus on the renewable sector in Pakistan, where CDC has made over US $160 million in equity and debt investments, over the past five years.
Riaz Haq said…
Suki Kinari Hydropower project to be completed by next year


https://youtu.be/vCfVyzArWUU

———-

https://nation.com.pk/10-Feb-2022/suki-kinari-power-project-a-symbol-of-pak-china-strong-bonds?version=amp

The project commenced in 2017 by “Suki Kinari Hydro Private Limited” and a Chinese “Gezhouba Group Company Limited” under the China Pakistan Economic Corridor.

Project to be operational by April 2023 will provide electricity to 1.3m houses across

the country

The project stretched over 48 kilometres from Paras village along with the River to Palodhran in Kaghan valley. It is a diversion type hydro power project between high head and long tunnel with an installation capacity of generating power of 884 MW daily, Project Engineer Asad Bhatti told this scribe.

He said that the work on power house is also underway. The power house is located underground mountains approximately 30 kilometres downstream of the dam and the construction involves building of 30-kilometre tunnels for water flows in high mountains, which have been completed and finishing work of the tunnels is underway.

The project engineer also told the media the highly efficient Pelton turbines installed at the project will generate 3000 GWH of green electricity annually, sufficient enough to provide power to 1.3 million homes across Pakistan through the national grid. He said the power project will contribute to 14 of the 17 United Nations Sustainable Development Goals and will boost the regional economy by $3 billion. The total cost of the project is approximately $2 billion. About 83% of the construction work has been completed successfully and is likely to be operational in April 2023. "This power project and many other projects under the CPEC are provided complete security cover by the Pakistan Army through comprehensive security mechanism", GOC CPEC Security Division Maj Gen Kamran Nazir Malik told the media at the project site.
Riaz Haq said…
The test run of two 900MW power plants—Lucky and Thar Energy Ltd—has paved the way for the launch of their commercial operations within a month or so.

https://www.dawn.com/news/1672264

With the addition of these plants, the total generation in the southern region corridor will reach 5,530MW. It will further surge to 5,830MW after Jamshoro Power Plant starts commercial operation by end of this year, Dawn has learnt.

According to a letter issued by the National Power Control Centre (System Operations)—a department of the National Transmission and Despatch Company—both the plants are passing through the test run process before commencing commercial operations.

“In the southern region, the commissioning of Lucky Power Plant (600MW) and Thar Energy (300MW) is underway at the moment,” reads the letter.


The plants already in operation in the southern region—1,240MW China Hub, 600MW Engro Thar, 1,250MW Port Qasim, 200MW (Wind Energy plants), 1,040MW K-2 and 300MW Hubco— are cumulatively generating 4,630MW.

“Of the aforementioned generation, a total of 1,500MW is being used by Sindh—500MW by the Hyderabad Electric Supply Company (Hesco) and 1,000MW by the K-Electric. Thus the remaining 3,130MW is currently being evacuated from the plants and transmitted and depatched to north-urban load centres in Punjab,” an NTDC official explained while talking to Dawn on Saturday.

The official, requesting anonymity, said as soon as the generation reached 4000MW, the testing of 660kV Matiari-Lahore High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission line would be carried out on full load/installed capacity of 4000MW.

Answering a question, he said the line is evacuating power from the plants in AC (alternate current) mode, converting it in DC (direct current) through a convertor station at Matiari (near Hyderabad), and supplying it to Punjab in AC mode after converting it at a convertor station, near Lahore.

“Keeping in view the increasing demand, the construction of some more power plants in the southern corridor is also being planned,” he maintained.
Riaz Haq said…
#Nuclear #India: For Clean #Electricity, #Modi Government Plans to Double Down on #Atomic #Energy in 2022. Currently nuclear power capacity in India stands at 6,885 MW. #Coal fuels 70% of #Indian power plants. New nuclear Target: 63,000 MW Nuclear. https://weather.com/en-IN/india/news/news/2022-02-11-government-plans-to-double-down-on-atomic-energy-in-2022

Despite a renewed global push for nuclear energy as a relatively cleaner source of electricity generation, the share of nuclear energy in the total electricity generation in India has remained around 3 to 3.5 per cent since 2014.

Confirming the statistics in the Parliament earlier this week, Union Atomic Energy Minister Dr Jitendra Singh said that the government plans to increase this share by adding more nuclear power capacity in the country.

"The actual commercial generation has increased from 34,162 Million Units in the calendar year 2014 to 43,918 Million Units in the calendar year 2021," Singh said in a written reply to a question in the Lok Sabha.

Consistent underperformance of the nuclear industry in meeting capacity targets has led the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) to refer to capacity targets as aspirational. Currently, in 2022, nuclear power capacity stands at 6,885 MW as opposed to the 63,000MW target.

The Minister said that the share of nuclear power in total electricity generation depends on the production by nuclear power units compared to all other electricity-generating technologies. But the number of nuclear power plants and their capacity has remained well below desired targets over the past few decades.

Despite repeated assurance from the government and experts that nuclear power generation is safe and much cleaner than other means of electricity generation, strong opposition persists for the widespread adoption of this technology across the country. Last month to a question raised by DMK Lok Sabha member T.R.Baalu, Dr Singh said, "India has adopted a 'closed fuel cycle', where spent nuclear fuel is regarded as a material of resource," he said.

"Given the very small quantity of high-level waste generated post reprocessing and technologies for separation, partitioning and burning of waste being developed by the country, there is no need for a deep underground geological disposal facility in the near future," Singh said.

He said that India is pursuing an indigenous three-stage nuclear power programme to provide the country with long-term energy security in a sustainable manner. In addition, Light Water Reactors based on foreign cooperation are also being set up as additionalities.

"An expansion programme for nuclear power is being undertaken to provide the country with clean electricity," Dr Singh added.

The Budget 2022-23 also was in line with the government’s promise to increase the share of nuclear energy. A whopping ₹86,200.65 crores budget has been allocated to the Ministry of Atomic Energy this year in what appears to be an effort to combat carbon emissions. This is more than four times the previous allocation of ₹18,265 crores last year.

On a global level, the European Union is also drawing plans to classify nuclear power as green investments to help Europe cut carbon emissions.

Moreover, this year, the budget allocation has also gone up to ₹6,900.68 crores to the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy—a jump of more than a thousand crore rupees. The funding for coal—the unsustainable fossil fuel that meets over 70% of India's electricity needs—has also sharply decreased from ₹933.60 crores in 2019 to ₹393.24 crores in 2022, hinting at a clear resolve to reduce the dependence on it.
Riaz Haq said…
2530 MW
At present, a total of 2530 MW of nuclear capacity is installed, comprising six nuclear power plants: KANUPP (originally 137 MW, de-rated to 100 MW), CHASNUPP-1 (325 MW), CHASNUPP-2 (325 MW), CHASNUPP-3 (340 MW), CHASNUPP-4 (340 MW) and KANUPP-2 (1100 MW).

https://cnpp.iaea.org/countryprofiles/Pakistan/Pakistan.htm#:~:text=At%20present%2C%20a%20total%20of,%2D2%20(1100%20MW).

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Pakistan plans on constructing 32 nuclear power plants by 2050 and envisions 40,000 MW of nuclear power generation.


https://www.dawn.com/news/1207543
Riaz Haq said…

61,370 MWe nuclear in France
Since June of 2020, it has 56 operable reactors totalling 61,370 MWe, one under construction (1630 MWe), and 14 shut down or in decommissioning (5,549 MWe). Électricité de France (EDF) – the country's main electricity generation and distribution company – manages the country's 56 power reactors.

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France will build at least six new nuclear reactors in the decades to come, President Emmanuel Macron said on Thursday, placing nuclear power at the heart of his country's drive for carbon neutrality by 2050.

https://www.reuters.com/business/energy/macron-bets-nuclear-carbon-neutrality-push-announces-new-reactors-2022-02-10/

Macron said the new plants would be built and operated by state-controlled energy provider EDF (EDF.PA) and that tens of billions of euros in public financing would be mobilized to finance the projects and safeguard EDF's finances.

"What our country needs, and the conditions are there, is the rebirth of France's nuclear industry," Macron said, unveiling his new nuclear strategy in the eastern industrial town of Belfort.

Promising to accelerate the development of solar and offshore wind power Macron also said he wanted to extend the lifespan of older nuclear plants in the world’s most nuclear-intensive country to more than 50 years from more than 40 years currently for certain reactors, provided it was safe.

The announcement comes at a difficult time for debt-laden EDF, which is facing delays and budget over-runs on new nuclear plants in France and Britain, and corrosion problems in some of its ageing reactors.

The nuclear blueprint cements France's commitment to nuclear power, a mainstay of the country's postwar industrial prowess but whose future was uncertain after Macron and his predecessor had promised to reduce its weight in the country's energy mix.
Riaz Haq said…
Sohail Ahmed @sohailahmedsa🇵🇰 Alhumdulillah Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) Unit-3 (K-3) is now critical.
KNPP-2 & KNPP-3 are 1100 MW each

https://twitter.com/sohailahmedsa/status/1495974363069399042?s=20&t=5RWyuRFkBRfeFG_Djqk90Q
Riaz Haq said…
Pakistan power project using China’s Hualong One connected to grid - Global Times

https://www.globaltimes.cn/page/202203/1253974.shtml


The (1,100 MW) K-3 unit of the Karachi Nuclear Power Project in Pakistan, the fourth entity to use a China-designed third-generation nuclear reactor, was successfully connected to the grid on Friday, laying solid foundations for commercial operation.

All four of the units adopting China’s Hualong One nuclear reactor are now connected to the grid and are generating electricity, China National Nuclear Corp (CNNC) said in a statement on Friday.

Each Hualong One unit is expected to generate nearly 10 billion kWh of electricity annually after being completed, which can meet the annual electricity demand of more than 4 million households in Pakistan – equivalent to reducing use of standard coal by 3.12 million tons, and reducing carbon dioxide emissions by 8.16 million tons every year. It is also the equivalent of planting more than 70 million trees, CNNC said.

It is of great significance for optimizing Pakistan's energy structure, as well as reaching carbon peak and carbon neutrality goals, CNNC added.

The success in construction and operation of the nuclear reactors in Pakistan will make the Hualong One technology better received in the global market, especially in countries and regions participating in the Belt and Road Initiative, observers said.

The K-2 unit of the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant in Pakistan, which also uses Hualong One, officially started commercial operation on May 20 last year.

As China's "calling card" for its nuclear power industry, Hualong One has become one of the most widely recognized third-generation nuclear power reactors in the market.

All of Hualong One’s core components are produced domestically, and it has a design life of 60 years and meets the strictest safety standards in the world, according to a report from the Xinhua News Agency.

In May 2015, construction began on the world's first Hualong One demonstration project in Fuqing. On January 30, the world's first nuclear power unit under Hualong One, unit 5 of CNNC's Fuqing nuclear power plant, entered commercial operation.

With Hualong One online, China is now at the world forefront of third-generation nuclear technology, alongside countries like the US, France and Russia, the Xinhua News Agency reported, citing CNNC Chairman Yu Jianfeng.

The commercial use of Hualong One will also help to meet China’s goal for CO2 emissions to peak before 2030 and to achieve carbon neutrality before 2060, Yu added.
Riaz Haq said…
#Karachi 3 (K3) #nuclear #power pant begins supplying #electricity. The 1100 MWe pressurized water reactor was connected to #Pakistan national grid on 4 March. Nuclear #energy currently provides around 8% of Pakistan's energy mix from 5 working reactors https://world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/Karachi-3-begins-supplying-electricity


The 1100 MWe pressurised water reactor was connected to the grid at 3:33pm on 4 March, China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) announced. It said the milestone "lays a solid foundation for the subsequent commercial operation of the unit."

Construction of Karachi 3, the second of two Hualong One units to be built near Paradise Point in the province of Sindh, began in May 2016. Karachi 2 entered commercial operation in May last year. The units are the first exports of CNNC's Hualong One, which is also promoted on the international market as HPR1000.

"After each unit of Hualong One is completed, it is expected to generate nearly 10 billion kWh of electricity annually, which can meet the annual electricity demand of more than 4 million households in Pakistan," CNNC noted. It said this is equivalent to reducing coal use by 3.12 million tonnes annually and avoiding the emission of 8.16 million tonnes of carbon dioxide every year.

CNNC said the construction of Karachi 2 and 3 has also driven the development of Pakistan's economy and related industries. The local supply of equipment in Pakistan has increased significantly, it said. "During the peak period of the project construction, it has directly provided more than 10,000 jobs for Pakistan, and indirectly created more than 40,000 jobs through the industrial chain."

The Karachi site - also sometimes referred to as KANUPP - was home to Pakistan's first nuclear power reactor, Karachi 1 - a small 100 MWe (90 MWe net) Canadian pressurised heavy water reactor which shut down in 2021 after 50 years of operation.

The first domestic demonstration plants of CNNC's Hualong One, or HPR1000, design are Fuqing 5 and 6, in China's Fujian province. Fuqing 5 entered commercial operation in January 2021; Fuqing 6 started up in December and was connected to the electricity grid on 1 January.

Nuclear energy currently provides around 8% of Pakistan's energy mix from five reactors: four CNNC-supplied CNP-300 pressurised water reactors at Chashma in Punjab, and Karachi 2. CNNC in 2017 signed a cooperation agreement with the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission on the construction of a Hualong One as a fifth unit at Chashma.
Riaz Haq said…
Fitch Affirms Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority at 'B-'; Outlook Stable


https://www.fitchratings.com/research/international-public-finance/fitch-affirms-pakistan-water-power-development-authority-at-b-outlook-stable-14-03-2022



WAPDA is established under a special statute. The Authority has close operational and administrative linkage to the government and is mandated to develop water and power resources in Pakistan. The government exercise strong influence over WAPDA's corporate governance and debt, sanctioned by the government, shall be transferred to the government according to the Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority Act.

KEY RATING DRIVERS
Status, Ownership and Control: 'Very Strong'


Our 'Very Strong' assessment of 'Status, Ownership and Control' remains unchanged, given the strong statutory support, stable government ownership - which we do not expect to change - and high level of government control. Employees of WAPDA are deemed to be public servants when acting in pursuance of WAPDA activities. The government has strong influence on WAPDA's corporate governance, including budget, accounts, financing activity and new power station investment plans, because the Authority is mandated to execute the government's responsibility of utilising Pakistan's water and power resources.

Support Track Record: 'Very Strong'


The build-up of circular debt in the energy sector exposes WAPDA to external funding. The government aims to mitigate the circular debt issue by providing financial support; it had guaranteed 22% of WAPDA's interest-bearing debt as of June 2021 and 56% of the debt comprises of government loans. The government will be liable for loans passed by the Authority with the sanction of the government under the WAPDA Act. Supportive policies, such as corporate tax exemptions, land acquisitions and a tariff mechanism, also enhance WAPDA's operational stability.

Socio-Political Implications of Default: 'Strong'


Pakistan's policies aim to boost the hydropower generation mix and reduce reliance on fossils. WAPDA's hydropower generation accounted for 27% of the generation mix in 2021, while other renewable energy only accounted for 3%. The government aims for hydro power to contribute over 40% of Pakistan's energy demand by 2030, implying that the development of hydropower generation is of significant strategic importance to the country. We believe WAPDA's installed capacity would be difficult to substitute and that any transition process would lead to severe service disruption.

Financial Implications of Default: 'Very Strong'


We deem WAPDA as a proxy financing vehicle for the government in the energy sector. The Authority still relies on the government to fund its investments, although it is expanding its borrowing capacity, including via recent bond issues. We believe the government's borrowing ability would be significantly impaired if WAPDA come under financial stress due to the high level of funding it receives from international development finance institutions and its debt mix - 78% of interest-bearing debt comprised loans or was guaranteed by the government.

Derivation Summary

WAPDA's ratings reflect our assessment of government linkage and support incentive and results in a weighted score of 50, based on our Government-Related Entities Rating Criteria. We adopt a top-down approach and equalise WAPDA's rating with those of Pakistan (B-/Stable), regardless of WAPDA's Standalone Credit Profile.

Riaz Haq said…
Arif Habib Limited
@ArifHabibLtd
Cost of Power Generation down by 26.9% MoM during Feb’22

Feb’22: PKR 8.94/KWh, +89.6% YoY | -26.9% MoM
8MFY22: PKR 7.79/KWh, +77.7% YoY

https://twitter.com/ArifHabibLtd/status/1505560053415219206?s=20&t=ZjuzMeRqtMxJ5u0DZQbobA
Riaz Haq said…
Nuclear power generation
By Engr. Hussain Ahmad Siddiqui Mon, 03, 22
This month is marked with Pakistan achieving milestone of 3,635-MWe cumulative nuclear power generation capacity as the third nuclear power plant at Karachi is connected to the national grid for testing, and will shortly commence commercial operations.

https://www.thenews.com.pk/magazine/money-matters/941162-nuclear-power-generation

his month is marked with Pakistan achieving milestone of 3,635-MWe cumulative nuclear power generation capacity as the third nuclear power plant at Karachi is connected to the national grid for testing, and will shortly commence commercial operations.

Commonly known as Kanupp-3 or K-3, it is of 1,145-MWe generation installed capacity and 1,100-MWe net capacity, which had attained criticality last month, and was undergoing safety tests and procedures. Generation cost is about Rs 9.59 per KWh (levelised). The foreign exchange portion of the project, which is about 80 percent of total cost, has been financed through a loan from the China’ state-owned The Export-Import Bank of China.

With the addition of K-3 nuclear power plant, currently there are total seven nuclear power plants installed in the country, out of which six, of cumulative installed capacity of 3,635-MWe, are in operation. The first–ever nuclear power plant constructed in the country, Kanupp-1 (K-1), has been permanently shut down. With the commencement of commercial operations of K-3, the share of nuclear energy in overall generation mix from all resources at national level has significantly increased, to over 9.1 percent. This share, which was 1.1 percent in 1990, has gradually and steadily increased in later years to 7.1 percent in 2020, before achieving the present level.

These nuclear power plants, established with technical and economic support of China, are owned and operated by the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), and regulated by the Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA) under the safeguards of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). These facilities are located only at two sites — Chashma (District Mianwali) and Karachi. There are four nuclear power plants, namely Chasnupp-1 (C-1) of 325-MWe installed capacity, and plants C-2, C-3 and C-4, each of 340-MWe capacity.

These four plants at Chashma were commissioned in the years 2000, 2011, 2016 and 2017, respectively, and their corresponding operating licenses are valid until December 2030, 2026, 2026 and 2027. Pakistan has an impeccable record of safety and security in operating these nuclear power plants, as it follows best practices and standards set by the IAEA. Pakistan is currently ranked 17th out of 25 countries on Nuclear Materials Safety Index in terms of safety, and security and is placed above India.

Karachi Coastal Power Complex consists of two units of 1,145-MWe each installed capacity, known as K-2 and K-3 for which China has provided $6.5 billion loan on soft terms. The earlier unit K-2 was connected to the system of the National Transmission and Despatch Co (NTDC) in May 2021. These are third-generation nuclear power plants developed and tested by the Chinese as “Advanced China Pressurized ACP-1000”. Electricity transmission infrastructure for evacuation of power from these plants include additional 550kv and 220kv transmission lines of 16-km that have recently been completed by the NTDC at a cost of Rs5.6 billion.

The K-1nuclear power plant of 137-MWe capacity was constructed near Karachi in 1971, and connected to the national grid in October 1972. It was designed to operate for 30-years’operation. On end of its service life in 2002, the major balancing, modernization & rehabilitation (BMR) and safety upgrades of the facility were carried out by the PAEC, and it operated safely since 2003 till recently at de-rated capacity of around 98-MWe. After 50-years’ record successful operation the plant has been shut-down in August 2021 for dismantling and decommissioning.

Riaz Haq said…
Soaring prices of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and coal on the international markets have left Pakistan, the world’s fifth-most populous nation, with having to cut electricity supply to households and industry as the country in a deep political and economic crisis cannot afford to buy more of the expensive fossil fuels.

https://oilprice.com/Latest-Energy-News/World-News/High-Energy-Prices-Lead-To-Power-Cuts-In-Pakistan.html

Pakistan—whose population is the fifth largest in the world after China, India, the United States, and Indonesia—started to feel the pinch of high energy prices as early as last autumn, when it was struggling to procure imported LNG for its power plants. Pakistan’s predicament came amid a global natural gas crunch and surging prices for the fuel in Europe and Asia, months before prices shot up again as a consequence of the Russian invasion of Ukraine.

As global energy prices remain elevated and highly volatile with the Russian war in Ukraine, Pakistan—dependent on imports with relatively poor state finances—is especially hard hit.

The energy crisis, and the political crisis with last week’s ousting of Imran Khan as prime minister of the country, which has nuclear weapons, have combined to throw the Pakistani state budget and finances into disarray.

Now Pakistan cannot afford to buy more LNG and coal, on which its power plants rely to generate electricity, Bloomberg reported on Monday.

In the middle of last week, on April 13, a total of 7,140 megawatts (MW) capacity plants were shut either due to fuel shortage or technical faults, Miftah Ismail tweeted. Ismail has been picked to serve as a finance minister by new Prime Minister-designate Shehbaz Sharif.

According to Bilal Kayani, Assistant Secretary General at the Pakistani party PMLN, foreign exchange reserves at the State Bank of Pakistan (SBP) amounted to just $10.8 billion on 8 April, a day before Imran Khan was ousted through the vote of no confidence. That’s less than 2 months of import cover. Reserves declined rapidly by $5.4 billion in just 5 weeks, Kayani said.

Riaz Haq said…
Pakistan: Experts stress shifting to coal for energy needs

https://tribune.com.pk/story/2353970/experts-stress-shifting-to-coal-for-energy-needs


Power sector experts have emphasised upon Pakistan to push harder for utilisation of lignite - an economical alternative to imported furnace oil and RLNG (re-gasified liquefied natural gas) - as it is crucial for the country’s ambition to achieve higher economic growth through industrialisation.

Besides industrialisation, provision of electricity to domestic consumers by using local coal reserves could serve the purpose of generating cheap electricity and curbing the ever increasing circular debt in the power sector, they added. They were of the view that the incumbent coalition government, led by Prime Minister Shehbaz Sharif, inherited fiscally unsustainable circular debt of nearly Rs2.5 trillion and lofty subsidies on energy prices, as well as re-surging blackouts despite surplus generation capacity. Electricity at current price is not affordable for businesses and residential consumers.

According to the government, the electricity generation cost rose by over 66% in March compared to a year ago because of the surging global energy prices.

The generation cost has surged 66.2% to Rs9.22 kWh in March this year from Rs5.55 kWh a year ago owing to spike in imported fossil fuel prices.

“Pakistan should now focus on local coal reserves for power generation as an alternate to imported fuel and coal given that its cost is much cheaper than the imported coal,” emphasised Sino-Sindh Resources Deputy CEO Chaudhary Abdul Qayyum.

Talking to The Express Tribune, Qayyum said that the local coal prices were not sensitive to international price fluctuations.

“Local coal at Thar is available for as low as $40 per ton and with rise in mine scaling, its prices will fall further to $30 a ton,” he pointed out.

“The best thing is that the government has to pay the price in local currency.”

Currently, around 16 million tons of coal is being imported by Pakistan to operate four power plants, Qayyum said adding that if these plants had been running on local coal, massive amounts of foreign exchange could have been saved by the country besides generation of cheap electricity.

He underlined that the recent commodity cycle had witnessed imported coal prices going up to $420-470 a ton from $100-120 a ton, making imported coal even more expensive than residual fuel oil (RFO) for power production.

Riaz Haq said…
Global Coal Production Capacity Rose in 2021

https://earth.org/global-coal-production-capacity-rose-in-2021/


Natural gas shortage and China’s energy crisis have driven global coal plant production capacity to surge last year, undercutting global net zero efforts.



The global capacity of coal power plants rose by nearly 1% in 2021 as the world recovered from the Covid-19 pandemic and increased attention on energy security, according to a report by a US environmental group Global Energy Monitor (GEM).

The research found that global coal plant capacity grew 18.2 gigawatts to about 2,100 GW or about 0.87% last year.

“It’s up by a small number,” said Flora Champenois, a GEM research analyst. “But it comes at a time when the world needs a dramatic fall in capacity, not any rise.”

The small spike can be attributed to a number of new coal plants that opened in China, which just about offset all the coal plant closures around the world in a global effort to cut down greenhouse gas emissions and limit global warming.

China, the world’s top emitter, has pledged to carbon peak by 2030 and to achieve carbon neutrality by 2060. But the country has recently turned back to coal, the dirtiest fossil fuel, due to its domestic energy crisis. To ensure power and heating supply for its residents, China has been increasing coal production capacity and built more than triple the amount of new coal power capacity as the rest of the world combined.

At the same time, Russia’s invasion of Ukraine put the issue of energy security at the centre of the global stage, where countries including Germany have been reconsidering turning to coal again – instead of relying on nuclear power like the UK – to compensate for Russia’s natural gas.

Global demand for coal has been on the rise. In 2021, the world generated more electricity from coal than ever before, increasing 9% from the previous year, according to the International Energy Agency (IEA). Total coal consumption, which covers electricity generation and industrial uses, is also expected to grow by another 2% in 2022. The IEA projects the high levels will likely last through to at least 2024, which is at least 3 billion tons higher than a scenario reaching net zero by 2050.

The latest IPCC climate report warns that global greenhouse gas emissions must peak by 2025 and be to halved by the end of the decade for a chance to limit global warming to 1.5C.

Despite rising inflation, coal will also likely remain to be one of the relatively cheapest fuels available, according to Bloomberg. However, there has been some positive trends. The report highlighted how capacity of global coal plants being built in 2021 decreased by 13%, dropping from 525 GW in 2020 to 457 GW.

Riaz Haq said…
Karot Hydropower connects unit one to national grid. It is a 720 MW plant constructed on river Jhelum, #Pakistan , in collaboration with one of the largest state-owned #Chinese power companies, #China Three Gorges Corporation. #CPEC Global Village Space

https://www.globalvillagespace.com/karot-hydropower-connects-unit-one-to-national-grid/


Pakistan’s first Hydel power generation project – Karot Hydropower – under the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) connected unit one to the national grid on 30 April, kick-starting the operations at full capacity, reported Developing Pakistan, a Pakistan based digital media platform. By connecting unit one of the Karot Hydropower, the project pumps 180 MW of electricity into the national grid. Karot Hydropower Project is a 720 MW constructed on river Jhelum, Pakistan, in collaboration with one of the largest state-owned Chinese power companies, the China Three Gorges Corporation, more commonly known as the CTG. The rest of the three units will be connected to the national grid in the upcoming months.

The project’s financial close was achieved in March 2017, and construction work began the same year. The mechanical, electrical, and other technical works of the project were completed around February 2022, and internal testing began in the same month. Work pertaining to transmitting power to the national grid was mostly completed by January however was not completed till April 30. The project is the first of three hydropower projects under China Pakistan Economic Corridor, and the estimated cost to get the plant operational stands at around $1.42 billion. According to the Managing Director of the Private Power and Infrastructure Board, the other two include “the 870MW Sukhi Kenari HPP and 1,124MW Kohala HPP.” Work on Sukhi Kerani is underway, whereas the construction of the Kohala Hydropower Project is yet to be initiated. The Kohala HPP is also being constructed on the Jhelum river, and a tripartite agreement was signed for its construction in June 2020; however, due to tax issues, the work on the construction site of the said river has still not begun.

It is pertinent to mention that according to the National Electric Power Regulator Authority state industry report 2021, Hydel sources of electricity generation account for 27.02 percent of the country’s electricity, significantly more than any other source except for thermal.

Separately, to address the energy demands of the country, Pakistani authorities have also engaged the World Bank to facilitate the set up of a 300 MW floating solar project at the Tarbela – Ghazi Barotha complex. The project’s projected cost is proposed to be around $346.5 million. Under the project, a 150 MW floating solar subproject will be deployed in the Ghazi Barrage headpond and another floating project of similar capacity at the Forebay of the existing Ghazi Barotha Hydropower plant. The project would greatly enhance the electricity supply and help meet the rising demand for electricity in a climate-smart manner.
Riaz Haq said…
Power generation capacity expands 11.5%
Total capacity reached 41,557MW with slight drop in hydel share


https://tribune.com.pk/story/2360862/power-generation-capacity-expands-115


The contribution of re-gasified liquefied natural gas (RLNG) to the total power generation increased to 23.8% from 19.7% last year.

Coal’s share remained the same, although the installed capacity went up from 4,770MW during July-April FY21 to 5,332MW in July-April FY22. Natural gas contribution declined from 12.1% in FY21 to 8.5% in FY22.

“There is an increase in the percentage share of renewable energy, which is a good sign for the economy as well as for the environment,” said the report.

The contribution of nuclear energy expanded to 8.8% in the first 10 months of FY22 from 6.7% in the corresponding period of FY21. The share of wind energy rose from 3.31% to 4.8% while solar energy’s share edged up from 1.07% to 1.4%.

“There is a slight shift in the percentage share of different sources in electricity generation,” the report said.

“Thermal has still the largest share in electricity generation, although its percentage contribution declined from 62.5% during July-April FY21 to 60.9% during July-April FY22.”

Similarly, the contribution of hydel energy in electricity generation decreased from 27.8% in July-April FY21 to 23.7% in July-April FY22.

However, the share of nuclear energy increased from 7.2% last year to 12.3% this year. The contribution of renewable energy inched up from 2.4% to 3.02%.

The first 10 months of current fiscal year did not see any major shift in the consumption pattern of electricity.

The share of household electricity consumption slightly declined from 49.1% in FY21 to 47% in FY22 while consumption in the commercial sector dropped to 7% from 7.4%.

However, the share of industry in electricity consumption expanded to 28% during July-April FY22 from 26.3% during July-April FY21.

The use of electricity in the agriculture sector slightly advanced to 9% from 8.9% whereas the consumption in other sectors, including public lighting, general services and other government traction decreased to 8% from 8.3%.

Energy sector scenario

According to the Economic Survey, Pakistan’s economic growth is constrained by bottlenecks in the energy sector. The country’s energy requirements are increasing and demand for energy in the coming decades will rise substantially.

Energy demand on this scale will put increasing pressure on energy resources and distribution networks, the report said.

“This is unsustainable without a fundamental transformation of the energy system. Dependency on the dominant fossil energy resources, especially oil is risky,” it said.

“Energy security is essential because the kind of disruption we have seen is a potential threat to our economic wellbeing. Exploration of the more indigenous and renewable resources is the key to energy security.”

According to the report, the government has been endeavouring to bring in transformational changes in the power system by exploring alternative sources of energy.

CPEC energy projects

Overall, 13 power projects of 11,648MW are being facilitated by the Private Power and Infrastructure Board (PPIB) under the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC).

These include four hydroelectric power projects of 3,428MW, five Thar-coal-based projects of 3,960MW, four imported coal-based projects of 4,260MW, and a 660-kilovolt high-voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission line project.

Of these, three imported coal-based power projects of 3,960MW and one Thar coal-based power project of 660MW have been commissioned, while ±660kV Matiari-Lahore HVDC transmission line has also started functioning on a commercial basis with effect from September 1, 2021.

Riaz Haq said…
Power generation capacity expands 11.5%
Total capacity reached 41,557MW with slight drop in hydel share


https://tribune.com.pk/story/2360862/power-generation-capacity-expands-115



“This is not only the first transmission line project developed by the private sector but also the first-ever HVDC transmission line in Pakistan.”

Furthermore, another nine independent power plants (IPPs) of 7,028MW, which include four hydel IPPs of 3,428MW, four Thar coal-based IPPs of 3,300MW and one imported coal-based IPP of 300MW are at different stages of processing.

Gas sector

The indigenous supply of natural gas declined around 5% and its contribution stood at 33.1% to the total primary energy supply mix of the country.

Available statistics for July-March FY22 indicate that Pakistan has an extensive gas network of over 13,513 km of transmission, 155,679 km of distribution and 41,231 km of services gas pipelines to cater to the requirement of millions of consumers.

The number of consumers has increased from 10.3 million to more than 10.7 million across the country. “The government’s policies to enhance the indigenous gas production to meet the increasing demand for energy proved effective,” the report said.



At present, the capacity of two Floating Storage and Re-gasification Units (FSRU) for RLNG is 1,200 million cubic feet per day (mmcfd). RLNG is being imported to bridge the widening gap between demand and supply of gas in the country.

The average natural gas consumption declined from 3,723 mmcfd to about 3,565 mmcfd during July-March FY22.

It is expected that gas will be supplied to approximately 736,060 new consumers (the target is subject to approval of Ogra) during FY23.

Gas utilities have planned to invest Rs27,669 million in transmission projects, Rs77,484 million in distribution projects and Rs8,746 million in other projects, bringing total investment to Rs113,899 million during fiscal year 2022-23.

Oil sector

Pakistan generates electricity from an energy mix that includes oil, natural gas, LNG, coal and renewable sources including solar, wind, hydel, nuclear and biomass.

The energy sector is heavily dependent on imported fuel including oil and LNG and will continue to rely on its imports because of the low domestic capacity, according to the report.

Higher oil prices in the global market and massive depreciation of the Pakistani rupee make oil imports more expensive, triggering external sector pressure and widening the trade deficit. The surge in the oil import bill is attributed to the increase in value as well as increase in the quantity demanded. The oil import bill increased 95.9% to $17.03 billion in July-April FY22 compared to $8.69 billion during the corresponding period of last year.

Further breakdown showed that the import of petroleum products went up 121.15% in value and 24.18% in quantity. During July-April FY22, the import of petroleum products increased to $8.55 billion compared to $3.87 billion during July-April FY21. Crude oil imports rose 75.1% in value and 1.4% in quantity during the period under review.

Petroleum crude reached $4.22 billion in July-April FY22 against $2.41 billion in the same period in FY21. During July-March FY22, the total processed imported crude stood at one million tons while the processed local crude was recorded at 2.31 million tons.
Riaz Haq said…
Arif Habib Limited
@ArifHabibLtd
FY22: Petroleum Sales grow by 16% YoY to 22.6mn tons.

Full Report
https://arifhabib.com/r/PetroleumSalesJun-22.pdf

@Pakstockexgltd

@Official_PetDiv

#Pakistan #Economy #AHL
#OGRA #PSO #APL #HASCOL #SHEL #Pakistan #AHL

https://twitter.com/ArifHabibLtd/status/1543854255890698240?s=20&t=Ox-VAMaQyaL7DaTy7aND7A
Riaz Haq said…
Pakistan on Tuesday raised electricity prices to match rising generation costs amid a global energy crisis and a heatwave, even as the country grapples with its highest inflation in over a decade, the power minister said.

https://www.reuters.com/business/energy/pakistan-raises-power-prices-amid-energy-crisis-despite-rampant-inflation-2022-07-26/

Inflation last month reached 21.3%, driven mainly by rising food costs, and the country also faces fast-depleting foreign reserves, a depreciating currency and widening current account deficit.

"Cabinet has approved an increase in electricity tariffs but lifeline (poor) consumers will not be affected,” Power Minister Khurram Dastagir Khan told reporters in Islamabad, adding that the increase would not apply to them.

Pakistan's monthly fuel oil imports are set to hit a four-year high in June, Refinitiv data shows, as the country struggles to buy liquefied natural gas for power generation amid a heatwave that is driving demand.

Higher energy imports have hit the economy as the country struggles to boost foreign exchange. The rupee has lost 20% of its value in 2022. Reserves have fallen to as low as $9.3 billion, hardly enough to pay for 45 days of imports.

Pakistan this month reached a staff-level agreement with the IMF for $1.17 billion in critical funding under a resumed bailout package.

The country is also pushing to tap other avenues for power. The minister said that nuclear power production had risen after the refuelling of one plant.

From the beginning of July, the K2 plant has been operating at full capacity
Riaz Haq said…
Solar plant to replace 300MW Gwadar coal power project
The project was conceived under the CPEC and approved in 2016

https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/976586-solar-plant-to-replace-300mw-gwadar-coal-power-project


The Power Division has decided to abandon the 300MW imported coal-based power plant at Gwadar and replace it with a solar plant.

The project was conceived under the CPEC and approved in 2016, but its formal construction had not started. Now the government wants China to install a solar power plant of the same capacity after the government decided not to install any new power plant based on imported fuel in the future.

“We have decided to abandon the project, but we will have to take up the issue at various CPEC forums with our Chinese counterparts. CPEC projects have sensitivity and importance which is why the Power Division’s decision to replace the imported coal-based project at Gwadar with a solar plant is being kept at a low profile,” an official said.

Federal Minister for Power Division Khurram Dastgir Khan also hinted the government wanted the Chinese power plant at Gwadar to be replaced with a solar power plant of 300MW. Talking to The News, he also added that the government had decided to ban new power plants based on imported fuel and would add new capacity to electricity generation based on local fuel, such as Thar coal, wind, solar, and hydel. “However, the government will continue the policy to install more nuclear power plants,” he added.

More importantly, the minister said, the government has also decided to convert the existing imported coal-based power plants of 3,960MW, including the Port Qasim plant, Sahiwal power plant and China Hub plant, each having the capacity to generate 1,320MW of electricity, to local coal. The fuel import bill had eaten up almost $20 billion in the first 11 months of the last fiscal 2021-22. The initiative is being taken to scale down the fuel import bill and reduce reliance on imported fuel for power generation. The minister said the process to convert the three projects to local coal would take investment and time as boilers of the plants would need some specific changes for calibration with Thar coal.

The Joint Cooperation Committee (JCC) for the CPEC had decided in its 6th meeting held in Beijing in December 2016 that a 300MW imported coal-fired power project must be developed on a fast-track basis at Gwadar. The tariff of the project was determined in September 2019, land for the project was acquired in February 2020 and the project management was signed on April 8, 2021. The Nepra also issued a generation licence to the project management. However, the financial close of the project has not yet been completed as it is still under process. The project is still on the list of under-construction CPEC projects. However, its construction has not started yet. That is why top officials of the Power Division have decided to abandon the project and replace it with a solar power plant under its new policy not to install a new power plant base on imported coal in future.

Pakistan is currently importing 30 to 70MW of electricity from Iran under an agreement of 110MW. Sometimes, Pakistan has some fluctuation in electricity import because of demand in Iran. Pakistan had inked a new agreement of importing 100MW electricity for which a transmission line would be laid from Polan (Iran) to Gwadar by the end of 2022, or the start of 2023. The government has also increased its emphasis on laying its own infrastructure in Balochistan and the NTDC will lay a high transmission line of 500kv from Makran coast to Gwadar.

Riaz Haq said…
SECMC has already commissioned a study for converting the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor coal plants in Hub, Jamshoro and Sahiwal to indigenous lignite. A 105km long Thar Rail project is being planned to connect Thar coal fields with Main Line at the New Chhor Halt Station to transport lignite to the power plants in the rest of the country.

The transportation of lignite by trucks to Karachi and Kallar Kahar shows its movement by road and rail is feasible and safe despite higher moisture. “Transportation is manageable; no combustion encountered during mining or transportation,” he adds.


https://www.dawn.com/news/1702647

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“The (Lucky)power plant has been designed to operate on Thar Lignite Coal, subject to its availability; however, during the interim period, it will mainly operate on imported Lignite Coal till the completion of Phase III of Sindh Engro Coal Mining Company (SECMC), which is expected in the second quarter of CY 2023,” read the notice.

https://www.brecorder.com/news/40162068/lucky-electric-commissions-660-mw-coal-power-plant-at-bin-qasim

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The government has decided to convert 3,960 MW of electricity generated from imported coal onto local coal of Thar to stop consuming the costly foreign exchange reserves for the import of coal, which is no longer available at low prices. The coal price has shot up to $400 per metric ton, a senior official at the Energy Ministry told The News.

https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/967637-govt-mulls-plan-to-use-thar-coal-for-generation-of-3-960-megawatts

—————-


The (2nd CPEC coal power) project is likely to start its full commercial operations by the end of the current month. With the launch of the new power plant, 990 MWs of Thar coal-based electricity is being produced to overcome the power shortfall in the country.


https://gulfnews.com/world/asia/pakistan/pakistan-second-thar-coal-power-plant-launched-under-cpec-1.89717641
Riaz Haq said…
IS THERE A SOLUTION TO PAKISTAN’S ENERGY PUZZLE?
Countries around Asia weigh up the costs and benefits of nuclear power over coal and LNG

https://tribune.com.pk/story/2369846/is-there-a-solution-to-pakistans-energy-puzzle

According to data released at the beginning of August, out of 18,400MW of energy generated, almost 11,000MW are from hydro power plants and nuclear power plants. The remaining 7,400MW of energy was mostly from gas and coal fired power plants.

These figures show that decision-makers have learnt how to produce cheaper energy. At least 1000MW of energy is produced by wind. In 2020, the US Energy Information Administration predicted that by 2025, coal would cost slightly more than $90 per megawatt-hour, compared to $63 for onshore wind and $48 for solar. Still, Pakistan and most of the Asian countries rely heavily on nuclear, hydro and/or coal power options.

Pakistan is relying too much on coal-fired power plants which are volatile options considering the climate crisis and the environmental cost of carbon emission. Before, Pakistan relied too much on liquified natural gas (LNG) to fulfill its energy shortcomings but because of the Russia-Ukraine war, LNG is not available in the market. At the moment, all of the LNG is going to Europe due to a ban on Russian petroleum products. Over time, Pakistan increased its generation capacity through the installation of new RLNG and coal-fired power plants. However, the country does not have enough funds to purchase fuel for these plants. Gas and coal-fired power plants are extremely sensitive to price fluctuations in the international market.

To address the shortage of electricity, the government recently issued a tender for the purchase of ten LNG cargos on the spot market. But as expected, none of the companies submitted bids due to high demand and higher prices in Europe. Given the current scenario, expensive LNG and coal-based power plants are proving difficult options, suggesting Pakistan should have focused more on nuclear power facilities.

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In the fiscal year 2019-2020, four coal-fired CPEC power plants generated 19 percent of Pakistan’s electricity. The 4.62 GW of coal-fired generation funded by CPEC includes the 1,320 MW Huaneng Shandong Ruyi-Sahiwal Coal Power Plant, the 1,320 MW Port Qasim Coal Fired Power Plant, the 1,320 MW HubCo Coal Fired Power Plant, and the 660 MW Engro Thar Coal Power Plant, all of which began supplying electricity to the national grid between 2017 and 2019. Construction on the Thal Nova, Thar Energy (HubCo), and Shanghai Electric (SSRL Thar Coal Block I) power plants to increase 1,980 MW of capacity is currently underway.

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Coal consumption increased at a rapid rate in 2018-19, owing to increased use of cement and other enterprises. Local coal production was 5.5 million tons between 2018 and 2019, while imports totaled 15.7 million tons. During this time-period, the residential sector consumed nearly half of total electricity usage, while hydroelectric power supplied 21.3 percent of Pakistan's power generated.

Riaz Haq said…
The last stator frame at the (864 MW) Suki Kinari hydropower project (on the Kunhar river in the Kaghan valley of Mansehra District Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) has been hoisted successfully and lowered into the unit pit.

https://www.app.com.pk/global/last-stator-hoisted-successfully-at-cpec-sukiyaki-kinari-hydropower-project/


The stator weighed 335 tons and the task was completed with the help of bridge cranes. The project has four electricity generation units with a combined capacity of 884 megawatts.

The run-of-river facility is one of the early-harvest clean energy projects under China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC). Gezhouba Group, China is implementing the project at around $2 billion, China Economic Net (CEN) reported.

Also, the 5-kilometre-long relocated portion of National Highway 15 (N-15) is open to traffic. The existing portion of N-15 will submerge in the reservoir of the Suki Kinari hydropower project; therefore, the new road was constructed at a higher elevation. The new road also has a 411-metre-long tunnel.

The project is expected to complete by the end of 2023 or mid 2024, an official said. He said that the powerhouse and reservoir parts of the project were at advanced stages of completion. However, the 24-kilometre-long headrace tunnel is the most challenging part of the project due to unpredictable terrain, tough weather conditions during winters and dewatering issues, he said.

Gezhouba has deployed the most skilled workforce and state-of-the-art machinery at the tunnel sites and presently excavation and lining works are underway from both upstream and downstream sides, he said.

The project will add around 3 billion units of cheap electricity into the national grid annually after completion.
Riaz Haq said…
Surge in services demand helps steady India’s economy in August | Mint

https://www.livemint.com/news/india/surge-in-services-demand-helps-steady-india-s-economy-in-august-11663113708287.html

Electricity consumption, a widely used proxy to gauge demand in industrial and manufacturing sectors, showed activity is picking up. Numbers from India’s power ministry showed peak demand met in August jumped to 185 gigawatt from 167 gigawatt a month ago. However, rising unemployment numbers tempered the overall optimism, with data from the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy Pvt. showing the jobless rate climbed to 8.3 percent -- the highest level in a year. That shows the current pace of expansion isn’t enough to create jobs for the million plus people joining the workforce every month.

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https://www.reuters.com/article/us-pakistan-energy-climate-change-featur-idUSKBN2AO27C


When electricity projects now in the pipeline are completed in the next few years, Pakistan will have about 38,000 MW of capacity, Gauhar said. But its current summertime peak demand is 25,000 MW, with electricity use falling to 12,000 MW in the winter, he said.

Riaz Haq said…
Pakistan's power production hits record high at 24,284MW in 2021

https://tribune.com.pk/story/2309291/pakistans-power-production-hits-record-high-at-24284mw

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Economic Survey 2021-22: Pakistan installed capacity 41,557 MW in 2022

https://www.finance.gov.pk/survey/chapter_22/PES14-ENERGY.pdf

Pakistan's Electricity Generation Capacity
The total electricity generation capacity during July-April 2022 has increased by 11.5 percent and it reached 41,557 MW from 37261 MW during the same period last fiscal
Riaz Haq said…
Arif Habib Limited
@ArifHabibLtd
Power Generation Aug’22

Power Generation
Aug’22: 14,053 GWh (18,888 MW), -12.6% YoY | -0.7% MoM
2MFY23: 28,203 GWh (18,954 MW), -11.2% YoY

Fuel Cost
Aug’22: PKR 10.06/KWh, +57% YoY | -6% MoM
2MFY23: PKR 10.39/KWh, +61% YoY


https://twitter.com/ArifHabibLtd/status/1571073410486407169?s=20&t=sptq7d0z3ATWm_L0h6R1uA

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